Variabilité des flux turbulents de surface au sein du bassin versant d'Ara au Bénin

Abstract : West Africa atmosphere circulation is characterized by south-westerly wind (monsoon regime) during the wet season and north-easterly wind (harmattan regime) during the dry season. This alternation of wind regime is due to surface pressure variability linked to surface heterogeneities. Surface heterogeneities generate surface flux variability, secondary circulation and make complex analysis when trying to document surface-atmosphere feedbacks. LES modelling usually used for boundary-layer studies due to its potential to take into account 3D turbulence over complex topography, is used here to overcome these difficulties. Our site of interest is located in north of Benin characterized by Soudanian climate and heterogeneous surface properties. Climate analysis are first performed with radiosoundings, UHF radar, and EC station data in order to extract composite profile representing dry and wet season.. These composite profiles are then used to force atmosphere part of the Méso-NH LES model. To characterize turbulent fluxes length scales relative to dry and wet season, standard surface forcing data with Méso-NH like GTOPO30 orography (1km ) and ECOCLIMAP vegetation (1km) are respectively replaced by SRTM (90m) and SPOT/HRV vegetation data (20m) resampled to 90m. Along with statistical tools like 2D variography and Lagrangian, we notice that during dry season on heterogeneous vegetation, sensible heat flux H is more driven by wind and orography while we not able to discuss the latent heat flux E case. During wet season with the same surface forcing, it appears that H is driven by wind while E is more dependent to vegetation variability. Our study concludes in all case that H and E are not characterized by the same length scale.
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Moussa Doukouré. Variabilité des flux turbulents de surface au sein du bassin versant d'Ara au Bénin. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Grenoble, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011GRENU014⟩. ⟨tel-00693477⟩

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