Approximation faible et principe local-global pour certaines variétés rationnellement connexes

Abstract : This thesis is concerned with the study of some arithmetic properties of certain algebraic varieties which are ``simplest'' in some geometric sense and which are defined over fields of geometric type. It consists of three chapters. In the first chapter, which is independent of the other two, we consider the weak approximation property for a smooth projective rationally connecte d variety X defined over the function field K=k(C) of an algebraic curve C over a field k. Suppose that X admits a K-rational point. Using geometric methods we prove that X(K) is Zariski dense in X if k is a large field, and that under suitable hypotheses weak approximation with respect to a set of places of good reduction holds for X. When k is a finite field, we obtain weak approximation at any given place of good reduction for a smooth cubic surface over K as well as a zero-th order weak approximation result for higher dimensional cubic hypersurfaces over K.The second part of the thesis consists of the last two chapters, where we work over the fraction field K of a 2-dimensional, excellent, henselian local domain R whose residue field k is often assumed to be finite, and where we use more algebraic tools. We first study the ramification and the cyclicity of division algebras over such a field K. We show in particular that every Brauer class over K of order n, which is prime to the residue characteristic, has index dividing n^2, and that the cyclicity of a Brauer class of prime order can be tested locally over the completions of K with respect to discrete valuations. These results are used in the last chapter to study the arithmetic of quadratic forms over K. We prove that every quadratic form of rank \ge 9 over K has a nontrivial zero. When K is the fraction field of a power series ring A[[t]] over a complete discrete valuation ring A, we prove the local-global principle for quadratic forms of rank \ge 5 over K. For general K we prove the local-global principle for quadratic forms of rank 5. The local-global principle for quadratic forms of rank 6, 7 or 8 is still open in the general case.
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Yong Hu. Approximation faible et principe local-global pour certaines variétés rationnellement connexes. Mathématiques générales [math.GM]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA112060⟩. ⟨tel-00691513⟩

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