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La formation médiatisée du citoyen en Italie pendant la transition vers la deuxième République

Abstract : The first chapter summarises and anticipates most of the research topics. Paragraphs 1 and 2 show the surprise and perplexity of some pre-eminent liberal-democratic intellectuals facing Berlusconi’s victory in 1994, which, along with the transformation of the electoral law in the previous years, mark out the passage to the “second republic” according to the current opinion. My research suggests that 1994 instead marked the return to an anti-political culture which was repressed for a long time and Berlusconi was able to interpret and represent, both in his television channels and in the direct political propaganda. I believe that the defeat of the referendum in 1995 for the repeal of television duopoly and the limitation of advertising (§.3) are, on the other hand, a much clearer clue of his hegemony as public figure and “commanager” (“communication manager” – P. Musso), but traditional politicians are highly responsible for the origin of the duopoly and his achievement of “neotelevision” (Casetti-Odin) hegemony (§.4). In §.5, 6 and 8, I expound the two keys to understand the history of “neotelevision” (Casetti-Odin) which will guide my research especially in chapters 5, 6 and 7: the “Meyrowitz effect” and the “Chomsky effect” (quotation marks are necessary because I do not expect them to be theories which can be formalised and universalised, but they can only be clues for the organization and interpretation of historical data). The first theory suggests the possibility that “neotelevision” in Italy caused the progressive loss of aura, prestige and authority of parents, politicians and adults in general. Meyrowitz theory, inspired by Goffman’s dramaturgical sociology, aimed to explain the rise of protest movements in America with the widespread of television sets among American families (almost half of them had a television set in 1954). Nevertheless “paleotelevision” in Italy cannot significantly explain these same movements: it was less widespread, it had a smaller amount of hours of transmission, it had only one channel at first, then two…; in addition to this many other stimuli (starting from the “contagion” of the movement from abroad) appeared at that time. On the contrary “neotelevision” was a sudden change which concerned all the variables (hours of transmission, channels, etc…), therefore a further loss of adults’ prestige could be expected from it, but in a form different from protest. The “Chomsky effect” can integrate the “Meyrowitz effect”. According to Chomsky, media that lives off advertisement have to “produce” (I would say: attract, select, shape) the public, which then they will have to “sell to advertisers”. Program schedules of “neotelevision” will be, therefore, at complete disposal of the advertisers’ demands. It is certainly not a new idea, nor an idea had only by Chomsky, who uses it in an apodictic way against media mainstream: among others Antonio Pilati shares this idea, but with an apologetic intent (cf. §.8). Of course this “effect” is even less scientifically definable, because the educational process itself requires a long period of time, it is the result of too many crossed factors and its consequences are considered to be hardly predictable, or even unpredictable. Nevertheless, from those years, Italians’ attitude towards advertising and brands has gone through changes so drastic (as evidenced by Eurisko researches) that we cannot avoid relating them to the contemporary development of “neotelevision”. Moreover advertising targeting children and youngsters aims to make them consumers that are independent from their parents and to some extent it reinforces the “Meyrovitz effect”. Both the “effects” aim to develop television as independent educational curriculum.
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Federico Repetto. La formation médiatisée du citoyen en Italie pendant la transition vers la deuxième République. Sciences de l'information et de la communication. Université de Grenoble, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011GRENL018⟩. ⟨tel-00690917v2⟩

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