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VIH : comment la recherche en épidémiologie s’est orientée de l’évaluation thérapeutique au dépistage et à la prévention

Abstract : In years following the onset of HIV infection, priority was given to therapeutic research. Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in 1996, mortality and morbidity related to HIV have decreased dramatically. However, the epidemic remains active, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM), highlighting the need for changes in testing and prevention policies. This thesis presents the evolution of a part of research in epidemiology of HIV in Northern countries, focusing first on HIV treatments effectiveness then moving toward to limitations of current HIV testing strategies, new strategies of HIV testing, and finally addressing prevention. This Ph.D thesis contains five epidemiological studies conducted in France.The first study, conducted in 175 HIV-1 infected antiretroviral-naive patients, showed that lopinavir/ritonavir was efficient regardless to polymorphisms carried by the viral protease.The second study, based on an economic model accounting changes in medical practices and the impact of new drugs, showed that lifetime cost associated with HIV care is €535,000/patient (€320,700 discounted) for a life expectancy of 26.5 years under current conditions. Moreover, it highlighted that annual cost of care increases with late access to care (€21,600/year if AIDS or CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 at HIV care initiation, vs. €19,400 if CD4 count >500 cells/mm3, undiscounted costs).The third study conducted in 1,008 HIV-infected patients newly diagnosed, showed that 93% of patients had seen a general practitioner within 3-year period prior to HIV diagnosis. Of patients enrolled, 82 who sought care for HIV-related symptoms within this period had a missed opportunity for HIV testing proposition. Similarly, 55% of MSM who notified to a healthcare setting that they belonged to this risk group had a missed opportunity for HIV testing proposition. The fourth study assessed a community-based HIV testing strategy targeting MSM (532 MSM tested into the program studied). This HIV testing reached people at high risk of HIV, on third of these was little or not tested in other testing facilities. Among the 15 patients who tested positive (2.8%), 12 (80%) received confirmation and linked to care (median CD4 count =550 cells/mm3). The fifth study, a case-control study conducted in MSM in northern France (53 cases of early syphilis and 90 controls) showed receptive oral sex without a condom and anal sex toy use as the main risk factors for syphilis acquisition. Our results highlight limitations of current HIV testing strategies. They show the importance of promoting routine HIV testing in primary care settings, and extension of testing facilities that target populations with specific risk. In addition, they enhanced prevention for risk reduction measures for HIV and STIs. In the era of effective and well tolerated but expensive antiretroviral therapy, testing and prevention are significant issues in the control of the HIV epidemic.
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Karen Champenois. VIH : comment la recherche en épidémiologie s’est orientée de l’évaluation thérapeutique au dépistage et à la prévention. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011LIL2S043⟩. ⟨tel-00689884⟩

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