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Interaction entre déformation et percolation de magma ou de fluide dans le manteau à l'aplomb des zones de subduction

Abstract : This work provides new constraints on the interactions between deformation and percolation of melt or fluids, as well as on the implications of these processes for the seismic properties of the mantle wedge. It is based on the analysis of spinel peridotites from the massif of Ronda (Spain) and two xenolith suites from active subduction zones (Kamchatka, Papua New Guinea). A coupled structural, petrological and geochemical study of these samples shows that they underwent a reactive percolation of melts or Si-rich fluids, which was synchronous to a deformation event occurring under high temperature and low stress conditions, consistent with the PT conditions at the base of the lithosphere or in the asthenosphere. This reactive percolation is responsible for enrichment in pyroxenes, mainly orthopyroxene, which is often localized in bands parallel to the high-temperature foliation. This enrichment is associated with grain size reduction and dispersion of the crystallographic orientation of olivine. The dominant slip system in olivine is {0kl}[100], which results in fast S-wave polarization parallel to the flow direction in the mantle. The decrease in the intensity of the olivine crystal preferred orientations associated with the enrichment in pyroxene results in significant decrease of the anisotropy that may induce an underestimation of the thickness of the anisotropic layer by up to 33%. The observed orthopyroxene enrichment also lowers the Vp/Vs ratio, but cannot explain Vp/Vs < 1.7 mapped locally in the fore-arc mantle in Japan and the Andes. Such low Vp/Vs ratios may however be explained by considering the intrinsic anisotropy of the peridotites, which is generally ignored in large-scale Vp/Vs ratio mapping of the mantle wedge. Infrared analyses show that olivine from the both xenolith collections contains less water than the theoretical saturation calculated for their estimated equilibrium temperature in the spinel stability field. These low water content are similar to those observed in spinel peridotites from other subduction zones and probably record both the low solubility of water in olivine at relatively low pressure and dehydration during exhumation of the xenoliths. These measured water contents as well as theoretical saturation estimations are not sufficient to change the dominant slip direction of in olivine from [100] to [001].
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Submitted on : Friday, April 20, 2012 - 11:57:06 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, November 5, 2020 - 9:46:49 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00689832, version 1

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Vincent Soustelle. Interaction entre déformation et percolation de magma ou de fluide dans le manteau à l'aplomb des zones de subduction. Tectonique. Universite de Montpellier 2, 2010. Français. ⟨tel-00689832⟩

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