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Le fantastique littéraire en France et en Roumanie. Quelques aspects au XIXe siècle : une rhétorique de la (dé)construction ?

Abstract : The present study is aimed at examining the fantastic as a literary genre by means of a twofold endeavour,which could be seen both as a diachronic (the history of cultural influences and transfers) and as a synchronicone (an investigation into several aspects that are related to a common modality of fantastic texts identified inthe poetics of (de)construction).The corpus of this paper is made up of fantastic stories created by several French writers that are traditionallyassociated with various trends or literary movements - Mérimée, Gautier, Maupassant, Villiers de l’Isle-Adam or Barbey d’Aurevilly – to whom we will add Romanian fantastic texts written by such various literaryfigures as Mihai Eminescu, Ioan Luca Caragiale, Gala Galaction and Mateiu Caragiale. Some of the worksproduced by the Romanian writers mentioned above surpass the strict temporal framework of the XIXthcentury, yet our choice is motivated by the fact that the texts under scrutiny are traditionally considered asbelonging to a first stage of the Romanian fantastic prose. As far as Mateiu Caragiale is concerned, we haveexceptionally chosen to deal with the short story entitled Remember from the perspective of the explicitintertextuality with Barbey d’Aurevilly’s Le rideau cramoisi.At the core of our investigation of the literary fantastic (in this context limited to short stories) we haveplaced the idea of (de)construction, which is to be followed on three levels: an onomastic level (the transitionfrom the term “fantastic” to the fantastic genre in literature), a diachronic level (the emergence of the fantastic as a literary genre and its identity, an issue to be addressed from the perspective of literary historyand the theory of reception) and a rhetorical level in its broad sense (a poetics of fantastic prose fiction). Wewill emphasize the fact that our intention is not to use the idea of (de)construction in the strict sense of thephilosophical concept launched by Jacques Derrida. The significance of (de)construction employed in thispaper is based on a thesis already formulated by Irene Bessière - the poetics of uncertainty that is related totwo projects that are opposite, but still coexist, i.e. the construction and deconstruction of the real.The first level of approaching (de)construction in the wider context of the fantastic prose coincides with thefirst part of our paper, which includes various definitions of the fantastic, different types of approaches andboundaries that can be applied to it and the famous dichotomy between the fantastic and the miraculous. Theterm “fantastic” was proposed by the French through Loève-Veimars’s erroneous translation, as a label forHoffmann’s tales, while Nodier launches a theoretical and critical discourse on the fantastic. The attempts to define the fantastic from different perspectives reveal some common aspects that itpossesses, thus assuming the shape of a process of (de)construction. We mainly take into account twodirections, a general one whose stake is the supernatural, and a restrictive one trying to set boundaries. (De)construction is also discussed from the perspective of the identity of the fantastic genre. On the one hand, thefantastic resorts to external thematic sources (the mythical miraculous, the legendary, the religious, modernideologies, scientific progress etc.), on the other hand, the modern reconstruction of these sourcespresupposes a new poetics, which consists in building a “fantastic report” between a real world and thoseelements that are generally considered supernatural, implausible, impossible or illogical, presented in such amanner as to produce the illusion of reality..
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Silvia Adriana Apostol. Le fantastique littéraire en France et en Roumanie. Quelques aspects au XIXe siècle : une rhétorique de la (dé)construction ?. Littératures. Université Paris-Est; Universitatea din Pitești. Facultatea de Litere (România), 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011PEST0007⟩. ⟨tel-00686613⟩

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