Abstract : Mediterranean cities historical centres are crossing a period of deep changes because of new urban functions deployment inside of metropolitan areas. Ambitious projects of urban renewal restore and adapt central spaces. Extent and strategic stakes of those transformations are taking place in a Mediterranean riverside metropolis competition context. Economical and political decision-makers hope that those investments in term of territorial efficiency will succeed, in order to promote their city inside of the Mediterranean bow. Experimentations guided for this geographical thesis are taking place in the following cities: Marseille (France), Thessalonica (Greece), Sevilla (Spain). Mediterranean cities historical centres are rehabilitated in the course of restoration projects. These heritage resource forms the base of the process of gentrification witch operate the main changes inside historical centres. Successive degradations and renovations upset ancient forms first by destruction then by functions renovation (social, residential) or by the renewal of functions (artistic, cultural). Nevertheless sustainable urban renewal conditions invite to conciliate present town management and future development. In this context the population's participation concerning the district planning represents an important stake in term of governance.