Abstract : The relationship between alluvial dynamics and control parameters such as climate are well known and understood at plurimillennial and pluriannual time-scales. But it is not really the case at multicentennial and multidecennal time-scales compatible with human society settlement time-scales. In a present and near future context, when human settlement may be affected by strong climatic variation, alluvial dynamics understanding is however a major centre of attention to the development of efficient models. To approach this scale-related question, a segment of the Upper Rhine River presenting both anastomosed and braided was investigated. This area also gives us the opportunity to study settlement dynamics during two key periods of the Holocene. The Roman Period characterised by a first major anthropogenic impact on the environment and poorly documented climatic changes. The Little Ice Age, when human settlement and climate may be well documented with high reliability. A wide methodological approach has been completed to combine results from geomorphology, stratigraphy, geophysics, G.I.S., palynology, dendrochronology and archaeology. This dataset shows: 1/ documentary flood frequency variations of the Rhine River during the last 800 years. These chronological variations show some dissimilarity with other French rivers reconstructed documentary flood series. That attests a primary control of catchment's characteristics and regime type on long term hydrological dynamics. 2/ changes in the Rhine River and floodplain dynamics during Little Ice Age before major anthropogenic river management of 19th century. Planform changes, riverine forest, land use evolution, and anthropological settlement processes are described and quantified. These results allow the identification of major stratigraphic agent factors role responsible of these changes. 3/ the alluvial landscape character where the Oedenburg site settled, together with the evolution of the riverine forest influenced by the Rhine River hydrodynamics. 4/ of settlement dynamics during Antiquity. Four major settlement phases have been evidenced by spatial distribution analysis of roman coins found by pedestrian prospecting during the last twenty years. Settlement dynamics may have been influenced by either historical or environmental impacts. 5/ variations in alluvial dynamics of the Rhine River during Antiquity such as high water table or flooding events.