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Etude de l’impact de l’anthropisation sur l’écologie évolutive des vecteurs de la maladie de Chagas : cas de trois communautés du Tapajos, Amazonie brésilienne

Abstract : Anthropic disturbances from deforestation of Amazon tropical forest leads to a mosaic of landscapes composed of secondary vegetation (secondary forest, palm groves, fallows) and pasture. These changes result in the proliferation of invasive heliophilous palm trees of the family Attalea spp., the principal ecotope of Rhodnius species, bloodsucking bug vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease in Latin America. The present study focuses on different land cover classes of three rural communities of the lower Tapajós (Brazilian Amazon) with different settlement times (25-75 years). Six different land-cover classes were identified on the field and applied through supervised classification on a SPOT 5 image of the study area in order to cartography environmental risk associated to palm tree presence in the area. Three hundred and thirty palms trees of three species Attalea maripa, A. phalerata and A.speciosa were dissected of which 73 (54.88%) were infested with R. robustus (742 insects collected). The distribution of palm species varied in each community, A.maripa was the only species found in the most recently settled community (Araipá). Significant decreases in bug density were observed in A.maripa, in the community most recently established (Araipá) and in the two most anthropogenic landcover classes.Infection of insects by T. cruzi and T. rangeli was examined using molecular methods (mini exon SL_IR and sno-RNA-C11). Respectively, 123 (16.57%) and 69 (9.3%) insects in 31 (23.3%) and 17 (13.32%) palms were identified as positive for T. cruzi and T. rangeli. A lack of infection was detected in Araipá but no differences were observed between the different land cover classes. The strains of Trypanosoma cruzi were identified using four distinct molecular markers (mini-exon SL-IR, GPI, HSP60 and D7-24α-rRNA) as belonging to the lineage TCI specifically TcId and 10 (8.13%) individuals showed a mixed infection TCI-TCII. Twenty host species divided into three classes were identified (mammals, birds, reptiles) were identified as food source from blood meal from the bug gut with cytochrome b primers, specific for vertebrates (25.74% of meals). Eighty-one percent of meals were conducted on mammals, potential hosts of T. cruzi, specially on Tamandua tetradactyla,identified as the main food source. This host was clearly identified as a reservoir for T.rangeli and also suggested for T. cruzi.Phylogenetic analysis performed using cytochrome b sequences, identified Rhodnius individuals in the Tapajos region within clade II, which represent an extension of the range previously described for this clade. The use of the cytochrome b marker also revealed a phylogenetic structure (haplogroups) not found using microsatellite markers. This result showed that the history of the genes (mitochondrial genome) does not match the history of individuals (microsatellites, 10 loci). Population genetics analysis conducted using both markers did not reveal genetic structure within the study area between the communities or the landcover classes. The study revealed significant gene flow, which was not restricted by the fragmentation of the environment. The invasive dynamics of Attalea palm trees provide a functional connectivity for insects to move between the different landcover classes and communities. Due to the abundance of palm trees and their high connectivity, the presence of vectors and infected hosts moving between the different communities and landcover classes, the environmental risk constituted by Attalea palm tree presence of Chagas disease in Tapajós region will presumably continue to increase
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Submitted on : Tuesday, March 27, 2012 - 3:02:28 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, December 10, 2020 - 12:39:00 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00683009, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 245090


Marion Quartier. Etude de l’impact de l’anthropisation sur l’écologie évolutive des vecteurs de la maladie de Chagas : cas de trois communautés du Tapajos, Amazonie brésilienne. Autre. Université Paris-Est, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011PEST1112⟩. ⟨tel-00683009⟩



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