Les anisotropies du fond diffus infrarouge : un nouvel outil pour sonder l'évolution des structures

Abstract : The Cosmic Infrared Background is the contribution of all infrared galaxies integrated on the history of the Universe. It emits between 8 and 1000 um with a peak around 200 um. A large fraction of this background is resolved into sources in the near infrared but only a tiny fraction is in the mid and far infrared because of confusion. The least luminous sources are lost in the confusion noise which forms brightness fluctuations, the anisotropies of the cosmic infrared background. The study of these fluctuations enables the study of the galaxies below the detection threshold, thus the less luminous galaxies. Thanks to the power spectrum we can measure the power contained in these fluctuations as a function of the scale. This measure contains, among others, the clustering of the infrared galaxies. First, I have isolated from the power spectrum of an infrared map, the power spectrum only due to infrared galaxies. Indeed, at large spatial scales, it is contaminated by the emission of Galactic cirrus. These cirrus are clouds of neutral hydrogen traced by the 21 cm line. Therefore, I made use of data at 21 cm to estimate the infrared emission of these cirrus that I have then subtracted from infrared maps at 100 and 160 um.This has also enabled me to compute the absolute level of the cosmic infrared background at these wavelengths. In order to analyse these power spectra, I developped a model of clustering of infrared galaxies. To do so I linked a model of evolution of galaxies that reproduces very well existing data including those of Herschel and a halo model. This is a fully parametric model that enables the study of the degeneracies of these parameters. I was also able to study the evolution with the wavelength of several physical measures. Furthermore, I fitted data from 100 um to 1380 um. Thanks to that model, I can determine the redshift distribution at each wavelength. Short wavelength probe small redshifts whereas long wavelength probe high redshifts. However the contribution of small redshift is far from being negligeable at long wavelength. As a long term purpose of determining the evolution of the clustering if the infrared galaxies, maps of the anisotropies of the cosmic infrared background are needed. I will then detail a component separation method dedicated to this problem.
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Aurelie Penin. Les anisotropies du fond diffus infrarouge : un nouvel outil pour sonder l'évolution des structures. Autre. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011PA112164⟩. ⟨tel-00681709⟩

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