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Quelle prédictibilité pour les éruptions volcaniques ? De l'échelle mondiale au Piton de la Fournaise

Abstract : This PhD work focused on several aspects of the eruptions prediction. It allowed us to consider different space scales from global scale to a single volcano, Piton de la Fournaise, through statistical approaches. We then focused more specifically on the volcano-seismicity associated to its eruptive processes, using deterministic methods. First, we analyzed the statistical properties of the eruptive dynamics at the global scale. The emergence of recurrent power laws allowed us to relate the eruptive dynamics to the SOC systems, thereby attesting for the difficulty to predict eruptions by means of deterministic methods. At the global scale, the study of the Omori-law found for eruptions foreshocks and aftershocks, along with the analysis of the parameters of those Omori laws given the size of eruptions, suggests that the damage and relaxation energy in the crust around eruption time and location is power-law distributed. However, the loading and relaxation coefficients are found different than for classical tectonic seismicity, thereby attesting their dependency to the damage processes. When zooming on three observables of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (seismicity, deformation and seismic velocity changes), me showed in a third part that the respective behaviors of the three observables respond to the different steps of the eruptive process, at different time and space scales. The analysis of the pre-eruptive behaviors of those forerunners under pattern recognition techniques enhanced the optimization of the prediction results by combining simultaneously their pre-eruptive information. Lastly, we performed a specific and deterministic study of the volcano-tectonic seismicity of Piton de la Fournaise through the assessment of the source mechanisms of the volcano-tectonic seismicity. Given the complexity of volcanic context, we developed a method to retrieve the source mechanisms of small and high-frequency seismic signals. Using this method three main families of events with different locations and times of occurrence emerge. Two of them may be interpreted as the readjustment of the crust during dyke opening whereas the third family is interpreted as the signature of fluids-rock interactions at the top of the magma Storage zone.
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Agathe Schmid. Quelle prédictibilité pour les éruptions volcaniques ? De l'échelle mondiale au Piton de la Fournaise. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Grenoble, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011GRENU046⟩. ⟨tel-00680072⟩

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