Abstract : By taking up large amounts of atmospheric CO2, the Southern Ocean helps to regulate the climate system. Southern Ocean carbon sink is poorly constrained, in part because data coverage is sparse and also because ocean models that have been used in such assessments fail to explicitly resolve key physical features such as mesoscale eddies. In recent decades, the growth of the Southern Ocean carbon sink may have been partly counteracted due to a loss of natural CO2 from the ocean driven by an intensification of westerlies, related to a positive trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). This thesis focuses on documenting and understanding recent spatial and temporal variability of air-sea CO2 fluxes in the Southern Ocean. Sensitivity to positive phases of the SAM are tested by making simulations with a regional model of the Southern Ocean (south of 30°S) that couples biogeochemistry to the dynamics, is forced by atmosphere reanalysis data, and partially resolves the mesoscale. The resulting response of Southern Ocean CO2 fluxes to the SAM is dominated by a strong CO2 efflux to the atmosphere from the Antarctic Zone due to an increase in surface dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). This increase is driven by the mixed-layer dynamics and is supplied by a meridional transport of DIC, a competition between the wind-driven circulation and the standing eddy-induced circulation. This work discusses the effect of increasing model resolution on simulated air-sea CO2 fluxes.