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Séquençage du génome du parasite intestinal Blastocystis sp. (ST7) : vers une meilleure compréhension des capacités métaboliques d'organites apparentés aux mitochondries chez ce microorganisme anaérobie

Abstract : Blastocystis sp. is a highly prevalent anaerobic eukaryotic stramenopile parasite found in the intestinal tract of humans and various animals. This microorganism, sometimes associated with acute intestinal disorders, could be responsible for functional intestinal disorders such as the irritable bowel syndrom (IBS). As part of a collaborative sequencing project with the Genoscope (CEA Evry, France), we were able to caracterize the smallest stramenopile genome sequenced to date (18.8 Mbp) with a 6020 genes coding capacity. The gain of many genes through horizontal gene transfer is amajor characteristic of this genome, which shows extensive genomic rearrangements. Despite the anaerobic nature of Blastocytists sp., this eukaryote harbours nevertheless mitochondrion-like organelles (MLOs). We have shown that these organelles have a 29.27 kbp mitochondrial-type circular genome that lacks cytochrome coding genes. In silico analysis allowed us to predict the MLOs proteome (365 proteins), with the subsequent predictive model of the metabolic pathways associated with these organelles, including an electron transport chain (ETC) restricted to complex I and II. We have shown that MLOs shared common characteristics with anaerobic mitochondrion and hydrogenosomes (presence of a PFOR and an iron-hydrogenase), which could mean that Blastocystis sp. harbours modified anaerobic mitochondrion that resulted from the parasite adaptation to its anaerobic environment. In addition, Blastocytis sp. secretome prediction reveals the presence of potential virulence factors, which could be involved in the degradation of the intestinal epithelium as well as the host immune system bypass.
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Michaël Roussel. Séquençage du génome du parasite intestinal Blastocystis sp. (ST7) : vers une meilleure compréhension des capacités métaboliques d'organites apparentés aux mitochondries chez ce microorganisme anaérobie. Sciences agricoles. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011CLF22164⟩. ⟨tel-00678598⟩

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