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Potentiel toxique et structure génétique de populations de Microcystis en lien avec les différentes phases de son cycle de vie

Abstract : The increasing eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems promotes the development of cyanobacteria, among which Microcystis is the most widespread in temperate regions. The ability of this cyanobacterium to produce a potent hepatotoxin, called the microcystin, represent a serious threat for both natural life and human health. Thus, understanding the factors determining the toxicity of Microcystis blooms is a major challenge of actual research. In this context, the main goal of this work was to study the temporal variability and the potential implication of Microcystis toxicity, at the scale of its annual life cycle. For that, it was necessary to consider more particularly, the least known parts of the cycle : the benthic survival phase, and the transition between the benthic and the planktonic phases, through the benthic recruitment and the sedimentation processes. Then, we studied the toxic potential of Microcystis populations through complementary approaches conducted at different spatio-temporal scales, by considering the genes controlling the synthesis of the microcystin, their transcription and the concentrations of microcystin. In parallel, the genetic structure of Microcystis populations was characterized in both benthic and planktonic compartments. By considering systematically the benthic life stage, we were first able to improve our knowledge on this phase of Microcystis development cycle. Thus, Microcystis is able to survive several years in deep sediments, without the population‟s toxic potential or genetic structure being degraded. On the other hand, at the sediment surface, the toxic potential and the genetic structure of the populations vary, in a similar range to what observed in the water column. Furthermore, this work also shed the light on the influence of benthic-pelagic transitions in the variability of the genetic structure and the toxic potential of the populations of Microcystis. Indeed, a genetic selection occurs during the benthic recruitment and the sedimentation processes. Although such a selection does not seem to rely on the toxic potential of the genotypes, it can greatly modify the toxic potential of both benthic and planktonic sub-populations of Microcystis.
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Benjamin Misson. Potentiel toxique et structure génétique de populations de Microcystis en lien avec les différentes phases de son cycle de vie. Sciences agricoles. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011CLF22168⟩. ⟨tel-00678587⟩

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