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Modulation des fonctions des lymphocytes T CD8 par l'Interleukine-4 et les cytokines de la famille γc

Abstract : Immunological memory is characterized by a secondary response that is faster and stronger than the primary response. For CD8 T cells this results from an increase frequency of antigen specific cells that display an improved response as compared to naïve cells. Memory CD8 T cells also display a new pattern of surface molecules that is associated with modified homing or activation properties. γc cytokines are known to affect both CD8 T cells functions and survival. Indeed, IL-4, a γc cytokine involved in Th2 responses induced in response to parasitic infections or allergies has been shown to reduce both IFNγ secretion and cytotoxicity of CD8 T lymphocytes. In the lab, we have demonstrated that IL-4 down-regulates ccl5 mRNA stores by inhibiting ccl5 transcription via a STAT6-dependent pathway. However, effects of IL-4 on CD8 T cells’ biology remain largely unknown. To identify such effects, we realised a microarray study that allowed us to identify the signature of genes affected by IL-4 in memory CD8 T cells. Among this signature, we identified genes involved in several functions of CD8 T cells, such as proliferation, migration, and effector functions. We then confirmed both in vitro and in vivo that NKG2D, a member of the NK receptors family involved in the modulation of the activation threshold of memory CD8 T cells, is down-regulated by IL-4, inhibiting NKG2D-dependant costimulation of memory CD8 T cells. Finally, we found that γc cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-21 affect the effector capacities of in vitro activated CD8 T Cells, as well as the differentiation of activated cells into memory cells.
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Erwann Ventre. Modulation des fonctions des lymphocytes T CD8 par l'Interleukine-4 et les cytokines de la famille γc. Sciences agricoles. Ecole normale supérieure de lyon - ENS LYON, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011ENSL0697⟩. ⟨tel-00678496⟩

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