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Nanocristaux optiquement non linéaires pour des applications en imagerie biologique : synthèse et caractérisations d'iodate de fer en microémulsions

Abstract : The development of functionalized nanomaterials with optical properties for a site-specific labeling or conjugation has undergone a rapid growth in the biological imaging field. Among the exogenous contrast agents which are already used, fluorescent nanocrystals such as semi-conductor (CdSe / ZnS, ...) and natural organic molecules (GFP, ...) or synthetic molecules (fluorescein, ...) suffer from blinking and photobleaching, respectively. Recently, Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) from acentric structures of some Non-Linear Optical (NLO) materials or organic molecules appeared to be particularly promising. Indeed, the major disadvantages of blinking and photobleaching are absent in the SHG process. Additionally, imaging of NLO probes is based on a non-resonant process, contrary to traditional fluorescent probes, which is key in terms of excitation wavelength. Near infrared illumination can limit the energy deposited in the biological tissues, increase the imaging depth and, finally, the SHG signal can be more readily spectrally resolved from the natural auto-fluorescence. The main objectives of this thesis were the synthesis and characterization of new NLO nanoprobes with a spherical shape and a size lower than 100 nm. The non-centrosymmetric material of interest is iron iodate (Fe(IO3)3). Its chemical elements are non toxic and its paramagnetic response may also provide a contrast in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which is not the case of the other NLO crystals such as ZnO, KNbO3, BaTiO3 and KTP. From a synthesis point of view, reverse microemulsions are well documented in the literature as good templates for the size and shape control of nanomaterials obtained by a coprecipitation reaction. In this work, nanoreactors were prepared from the AOT/alkane/water and Triton/1-hexanol /cyclohexane/water systems..A very original and convenient setup based on the Hyper-Rayleigh Scattering (HRS) was implemented so that the real-time crystallization kinetics of the growing acentric iron iodate nanocrystals in microemulsions could be measured according to different experimental conditions. We demonstrate that HRS is a fast, valuable and nondestructive alternative to probe in-situ the crystallization and growth dynamics of Fe(IO3)3 nanorods whereas the growth mechanism was elucidated by a combination of Dynamic Light Scattering, X-ray diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy experiments. The binding interaction between surfactant molecules and colloidal particles was studied as a function of the synthesis temperature as well as the surfactant nature. In some experimental conditions the size and polydispersity of the final nanorods can be thus reduced. However, the use of iron iodate as specific NLO optical probes is so far restricted due to its low stability at physiological pH. Preliminary encapsulation tests by a thin silica-coating in reverse microemulsions show the presence of ~ 10nm nanocparticles with a strong NLO response. The complete characterization and functionalization of these nanostructures as well as the optimization of the binding interactions at the organic-inorganic interface are the prospects of this work
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Moustafa El Kass. Nanocristaux optiquement non linéaires pour des applications en imagerie biologique : synthèse et caractérisations d'iodate de fer en microémulsions. Autre. Université de Grenoble, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011GRENA027⟩. ⟨tel-00678462⟩

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