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Acoustique et dynamique de flamme dans un foyer turbulent prémélangé swirlé : application à l'étude du bruit de combustion dans les chambres de turbines à gaz.

Abstract : Lean premixed combustion is widely used to limit pollutant emissions and improve efficiency. However in this situation combustion instabilities and associated noise may occur. The growth of self-sustained pressure fluctuations within the combustor may limit the operating conditions and eventually damage the installation. The objective of this work is to study the mechanisms induced in combustion noise and instabilities in a turbulent premixed swirled burner. The study is based on a detailed analysis of the pressure field of the combustor, the flame dynamics and a characterization of the upstream and downstream acoustic boundary conditions and in the air and fuel feeding lines. Based upon experimental investigations, a theoretical study of the burner acoustics is carried out using a low-order model with two coupled cavities. The eigenfrequencies and spatial distribution of the pressure field are obtained, allowing comparisons with experimental results. The impact of the inlet acoustic impedance on the prediction of the eigenmodes is examined through the use of the measured impedance in the model. Thereafter calculations with the AVSP Helmholtz code are carried out to confirm the results obtained with the loworder model. The interactions between the burner acoustic modes and the flame are investigated and the reacting flow dynamics is characterized, using High Speed Particle Image Velocimetry HSPIV at 15 kHz. A first analysis concerns the mean and fluctuating velocity fields and a spectral analysis of the collection of instantaneous velocity fields is carried out. Then a method based on the _2 criterion is used to detect vortices, showing that coherent structures are convected through the flame front at the frequency of the second unstable combustor mode. It is shown in the previous chapter that this mode is essentially associated with the premixer acoustics, allowing a clear coupling scenario between the acoustics and the flame. A phase locked averaging method is applied to the axial velocity fields. Flapping motions of the flame branches are highlighted in longitudinal and transverse directions at the unstable modes frequencies. The natural light emission from the flame is also measured using a fast camera. Spectral analysis and phase locked averaging with Abel transform are applied to images in order to determine the flame regions where a strong response is visible at the acoustic modes. Mechanisms underlying combustion noise are analyzed by correlating the optical and acoustic measurements. Flame transfer functions FTF are also characterized between upstream disturbances and the flame response at the combustor eigenfrequencies. Acoustic velocity is reconstructed in the premixer using microphones measurements. The FTF is calculated using PIV velocity fields, OH* or CH* intensities and flame natural light emissions measurements. Measurements and modeling show that boundary conditions play a crucial role in the burner stability. The acoustic impedance at the premixer inlet can be modified using an impedance control system (ICS). Thus, the pressure field and flame dynamics are characterized for different boundary conditions imposed by the ICS. The acoustic boundary conditions in the feeding lines are characterized using an Impedance Measurement Device (IMD) equipped with microphones and mounted within the supplies.
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Ammar Lamraoui. Acoustique et dynamique de flamme dans un foyer turbulent prémélangé swirlé : application à l'étude du bruit de combustion dans les chambres de turbines à gaz.. Autre. Ecole Centrale Paris, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011ECAP0028⟩. ⟨tel-00678248⟩

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