Abstract : The present work investigates the potential of starch nanocrystals (SNCs) for industrial scaled-up preparation and use. An extensive characterization (morphology, viscosity, thermal stability and properties in nanocomposite) of 5 different SNCs shows, contrary to nanocrystalline cellulose, the limited influence of the botanic source. The analysis of the current preparation process led to three optimization strategies, and to the definition of a new generation of SNCs with smaller dimensions and more homogeneous. A new application of SNCs is presented (multilayer packaging); and showed that SNCs can effectively reduce water vapor permeability of some biopolymers coatings. The life cycle assessment (LCA) of SNCs in this application is also proposed. This study contributes greatly to the advance of the field and offers perspectives for the industrialization of SNCs.