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Transestérification des huiles végétales par l’éthanol en conditions douces par catalyses hétérogènes acide et basique

Abstract : Biodiesel is a mixture of mono-alkyl esters used as alternative fuel. It can be obtained by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats with light alcohols.The objective of this work is the research of acid and basic solid catalysts able to promote the transesterification reaction of rapeseed oil with ethanol in conditions as mild as those used in homogeneous base catalysis. For this, two series of solid acids and bases were prepared and characterized by various characterization techniques (TGA-DTA, XRD, Isothermal N2). Calorimetry and Infrared Spectroscopy have also been used to characterize acid and basic properties. Correlations between initial activity and the acidic or basic properties of these catalysts have been investigated. The influence of the main reaction parameters was examined on the most active acid and basic solid. A comparative kinetic study then allowed us to propose reaction mechanisms. Finally the in situ valorisation of glycerol, a by product of the reaction, was carried out.We have shown that the cesium salt of 12-tungstophosphoric acid catalyst is the most active among the solid acids studied. This is explained by the presence of strong BrØnsted acid sites that are able to promote the reaction under mild temperature conditions. This catalyst is capable of achieving in situ etherification of glycerol with ethanol. In base catalysis, the newly prepared catalyst, zirconia exchanged with Cesium, is the most active catalyst among the solid bases studied. This catalyst is stable in the reaction medium after removal of the labile Cs species by hot washing. Comparison of the two catalysts shows that the base catalysis is much faster than acid catalysis. A kinetic comparative study allows us to propose mechanistic differences between these two types of catalysts.
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Berna Hamad. Transestérification des huiles végétales par l’éthanol en conditions douces par catalyses hétérogènes acide et basique. Autre. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : 2009LYO10271⟩. ⟨tel-00675661⟩

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