L’orientation sexuelle, facteur de suicide et de conduites à risque chez les adolescents et les jeunes adultes ? : l’influence de l’homophobie et de la victimation homophobe en milieu scolaire

Abstract : Several studies (mostly North-American) put into light a significant link between sexual orientation and suicidal behaviors among teenagers and/or young adults. Homophobia to which the young homosexuals are exposed is considered the most serious hypothesis to explain this link. However quantitative studies have never been conducted on this hypothesis in France. We took it into account while carrying out a survey based on a self-questionnaire built up from scales from “Adolescent Risk Inventory” (Lescano & al., 2007), Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire – revised” (Linehan, 1989), and Homophobia Scale” (Wright, Adams & Bernat, 1999). Said survey was answered by 475 young women, and 426 young men aged 18-24.Results confirmed oversuicidality among young homo/bisexuals. However, in the analysis conducted on male participants only, sexual orientation ceases to appear a significant predictor of suicide attempts or risk behavior in explanatory models in which variables « Homophobic Verbal Bullying in school » and « Bullying based on Gender nonconformity » are introduced. Said variables turn out to be the strongest predictors of suicidal behaviors among male adolescents and young adults. Young men have mean scores on the homophobia/lesbophobia scale that are significantly higher than young women's, and homophobic verbal bullying seems a lot more common than lesbophobic verbal bullying. Besides, lesbophobic verbal bullying does not have a significant effect on suicidal attempts and risk behaviors among young women. However, internalized lesbophobia has a significant effect on suicidal behaviors of the sub-sample of young women sexually attracted to same-sex individuals or wondering (ASMSQ), whereas internalized homophobia has no effect on ASMSQ young men. This last result is based on a lower population, and should be confirmed by subsequent studies, whereas analysis on all participants highlight the extent of homophobic bullying in school, and its impact on male teenagers and young adults.
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Jean-Michel Pugnière. L’orientation sexuelle, facteur de suicide et de conduites à risque chez les adolescents et les jeunes adultes ? : l’influence de l’homophobie et de la victimation homophobe en milieu scolaire. Psychologie. Université Toulouse le Mirail - Toulouse II, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011TOU20110⟩. ⟨tel-00674745⟩

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