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Apport de la biopsie osseuse transcutanée dans le traitement de l'ostéite du pied diabétique

Abstract : Diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) is a complication of a foot wound located under malleoli. DFO usually occurs as a consequence of a chronic foot wound and is facilitated by neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) which are both frequently associated with diabetes. OPD is rather an osteitis than an osteomyelitis as a hematogenous origin of DFO is almost not reported. DFO is an increasing worldwide problem which is related to the increasing number of patients with diabetes in the world. It is generally admitted that 15 to 25% of all patients with diabetes will experience a foot wound during their lifetime and that 40 to 80% of them will be infected. DFO has a deleterious effect on the wound healing and is associated with an enhanced risk for relapsing infection of the foot. DFO is with PVD a major cause for both minor and major limb amputations in these patients. DFO is first of all a bone and joint infection that occurs in a patient with diabetes. Complications of advanced diabetes mellitus like microvascular abnormalities and phagocytosis defects are likely to reduce the chance of healing. As most DFO are due to Staphylococcus aureus and that most of these patients have comorbidities, it has generally been thought that bone removal was required in order to obtain a complete healing. Minor amputation may however result in biomechanic disorders of the foot and subsequently may lead to new episodes of foot wound thus new DFO episodes. As a consequence, some authors have proposed to perform limited bone resections (i.e. without ray or toe amputation) or to use a medical approach of DFO (i.e. based on antibiotic therapy only). Medical treatment of DFO has the advantage to avoid the development of biomechanic alterations of the foot. However, given the high potential for selecting bacterial resistance of antimicrobial agents like rifampin and fluoroquinolones, it appears that the choice of the antibiotics to use should be best based on the microbiological testing of a bone culture which is consistent with the basic rules widely admitted for the medical treatment of any other bone and joint infections. This represents, nevertheless, a new approach of the treatment medical treatment of DFO. We will present in the present document the results of personal studies that suggest that 1) bone biopsy is a safe procedure and is currently the best method for obtained a reliable microbiological documentation of DFO and, in particular, that both swabs and needle aspiration cannot be used a surrogate tools for determining the pathogens involved in DFO (articles 1 and 2). 2) patients with DFO treated medically have a better chance to heal when the antibiotic therapy is guided by the results of a bone biopsy than when it is guided by superficial sample results (-article 3)3) bone biopsy is not used routinely used in most French diabetic foot centers (article 4). Finally, we will present 3 projects of study that are currently on process or will be developed in the next future.
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Eric Senneville. Apport de la biopsie osseuse transcutanée dans le traitement de l'ostéite du pied diabétique. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011LIL2S008⟩. ⟨tel-00674593⟩

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