Abstract : In Europe, grasslands occupy 25% of the land area and nearly 40% of the agricultural area. Many ecosystem services depend on this ecosystem such as forage production, reservoir of plant and animal diversity and ability of carbone storage in soils. In a context of climate change and agricultural abandonment (extensification of grassland in upland), current research interest to estimate the storage capacity of carbon in the soil with the maintenance of ecosystem services. This thesis aims to observe in situ the effects of major determinants of climate change(air temperature, precipitation, atmospheric CO2 concentration) on the functioning of the root system and determinants of carbon storage on extensive permanent grasslands. This study examines the influence of projected climate change scenario by 2080 for the center of France. This scenario (Accacia A2) provides an increase in air temperature of 3.5°C (T) and atmospheric CO2 concentration of 200 Nmol mol-1 (CO2) and a reduction in summerprecipitation by 20% (D). A follow-up of root cohorts for 3 to 4 years with the Minirhizotron is performed to monitor the demography (growth, mortality, life span and risk of mortality). The potential growth in ingrowth core is followed over a year after 4 years of climate change along with measures of root litter decomposition and soil respiration. After 3 years of experiment, we observed a positive effect of air warming (T) and climate change (TDCO2) on root production and climate change and a decreasing of root life span under air warming. An increasing of root fineness under warmed conditions (T, TD,TDCO2) should facilitate nutrients and water uptake. After 5 years of experiment, air warming (T) decreases the root production, root life span and accelerates decomposition of root litter. The increase in CO2 offset the negative effect of air warming on production. Climate change (TDCO2) accelerates the inputs but also outputs (decomposition and respiration were accelerated) in soil carbon. With the negative effect of air warming on above and belowground production in the medium term and nutrient demand, organic matter accumulated in the soil, whereas the increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration has reduced this amount. In a context of climate change, root production and the stock of organic matter in soils seems to be partly retained. However, with the acceleration of belowground process (growth, mortality, decomposition), soil respiration was increased. The CO2 and the others greenhouse gas emissions balance could be negative and accentuate climate change in the future.