Abstract : Areas with littoral macrophytes play an important functional role in freshwater systems. In addition to the high productivity recorded in such areas, they also shelter a high diversity of organisms. However, possible links between spatial heterogeneity, biodiversity and energy pathways are still poorly known. As they constitute the major link between microorganisms and species higher in the food web, microcrustaceans play a key role in the transfer of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to organisms at higher trophic levels. In this study, we wanted to assess if microcrustaceans diversity encountered in macrophytes littoral zones would lead to a variability of PUFA transfer in the food web. This work combined controlled conditions experiment and studies run in natural environments in order to help the interpretation of results from lipid analysis, isotopic analysis and fatty acid isotope analysis. Our results indicate that there are no differences of PUFA concentrations between cladocerans from a macrophyte littoral zone when they were exposed to the same pool of dietary PUFA. Hence, in heterogeneous feeding habitats such as macrophytes zones where these cladocerans often co-exist, foraging behavior of cladoceran species more than differences of metabolism may be crucial for determining PUFA transfer to upper trophic levels. In addition to seston, our study shows indeed that some cladoceran species are able to forage on the epiphytic and neustonic compartments. Lipid analyses highlight moreover that the diversity of trophic compartments lead to a variability of PUFA inputs to primary consumers. In our study, the epiphytic compartment is indeed significantly more concentrated in PUFA than seston. At the air-water interface, neuston is moreover characterized by important allochthonous organic matter accumulation. During a pollen rain, this organic matter represents an important source of carbon and PUFA for some microcrustacean species. In macrophytes littoral zones, cladocerans complementarity leads to a more complete use of PUFA sources. The association of trophic compartment diversity and microcrustacean diversity probably allows an optimization of PUFA transfer to higher trophic levels.