Analyse génétique et moléculaire du dèveloppement de la graine d'Arabidopsis thaliana : étude de la régulation de l'expression du gène LEAFY COTYLEDON 2

Abstract : The aim of this work is to study the regulation of the transcription factor LEAFY COTYLEDON 2, which is a key regulator of seed developpement in Arabidopsis thaliana.Seeds have essential functions in the environnement for plant propagation and as embryo protective tools. Furthermore, numerous products issued from the agriculture or involved in human food (e.g. cereals, oil, flour) are based on seeds. Several industrial apllications depend, as well, on this organ such as oil production for human consumption, additives for some industrial processes, or biofuel synthesis.Seed developemental phases are dependant of a complex regulatory network composed in major part with transcription factors, that were found to be central components of plant evolution and domestication.LEC2, FUS3, ABI3 (three B3 type factors) and LEC1 (a CATT binding factor) are named AFL (ABI3, FUS3, LEC1, 2) genes, and are key regulators of Arabidopsis seed development. AFL genes are specifically expressed in embryo and repressed in vegetatives tissues. This repression has been principally studied in germinating seedlings and was shown to be caused by a set of transcription factors and chromatin structure modifiers.Beside the fact that LEC2 regulation has been extensively studied within the past few years, it was known that other mechanisms of repression and activation were still to be discovered. The work carried out on LEC2 presented here, mainly based on an extensive promoter deletion analysis, has allowed the discovery of three essential nucleotidic sequences necessary for a proper LEC2 promoter activity. The two first regulatory sequences are similar to a MADS box binding element and a GAGA binding site, and were found to be essentials for LEC2 promoter activity. The third sequence (named RLE for Repression of LEC2 Element) is 50bp long and lead to the repression of LEC2 promoter activity after onset of seed germination. A very strong correlation between RLE and the enrichment of H3K27me3 mark deposition at specific loci, suggests this sequence is the first PRE-like (Polycomb response element) element identified in plants.
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Agricultural sciences. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2012. French. <NNT : 2012PA112033>


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Nathalie Berger. Analyse génétique et moléculaire du dèveloppement de la graine d'Arabidopsis thaliana : étude de la régulation de l'expression du gène LEAFY COTYLEDON 2. Agricultural sciences. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2012. French. <NNT : 2012PA112033>. <tel-00671310>

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