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Réponse des ostéoblastes à des stimulations physiques basées sur des contraintes mécaniques basses amplitudes hautes fréquences. Implication en ingénierie tissulaire

Abstract : Over the course of a day, weight bearing bones experience numerous stimulations : mechanical loadings varying in magnitude and frequency, but also electric fields. However, the biological effects of mechanical strain or electrical field on bone cells are poorly understood. In the present in vitro study, osteoblasts were submitted to only one kind of physical stimulus or a combination of stimuli, and the responses were compared. In the perspective of improving the qualities of bone substitute, we analysed parameters essential for a successfull osteointegration : the extracellular matrice (ECM) as host-biomaterial interface, and angiogenic factors which induce implant vascularization. We investigated the effects of complex mechanical strains based on signals of "low magnitude / high frequency" (LMHF) applied to 3D cultures (macroporous hydroxyapatite). Our study shows that an appropriate combined strain regimen (3 Hz+25Hz) has the potential to functionalise cellularized bone-like constructs. ECM synthesis was promoted by LMHF and the osteogenic properties of this ECM were enhanced while VEGF was not affected. Another system was developed to apply an electric field to cell cultures. Some parameters indicated that cells are sensitive to electric fields ; however VEGF expression was not affected. In contrast, when the physical stimulations were combined (LMHF strain + electric field) gene expression of factors implicated in angiogenesis (VEGF, TGFß1, FGF2...) was increased. The complex stimuli whose effects were analysed in this work could be used as a tool for the functionalization of a cellularized bone substitutes
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00670904
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Submitted on : Thursday, February 16, 2012 - 1:03:26 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, November 20, 2019 - 2:32:45 AM
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Virginie Dumas. Réponse des ostéoblastes à des stimulations physiques basées sur des contraintes mécaniques basses amplitudes hautes fréquences. Implication en ingénierie tissulaire. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010STET001T⟩. ⟨tel-00670904⟩

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