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Etude du champ électromagnétique et interprétation de données magnétotellurique

Viet-Hung Luu 1
1 HEPPI - LATMOS
LATMOS - Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales
Abstract : This thesis is devoted to the study of the electrical structure of the Earth's crust in two regions of Vietnam (the Red River Delta in the north and the region of the Saigon River fault in the south) and in West Africa. The data were those acquired during the International Year of the Equatorial Electrojet (IYEE). The technique used is the magnetotelluric (MT) sounding method. Two of the regions studied (southern Vietnam and West Africa) are located near the magnetic equator. Due to the presence of the equatorial electrojet in these regions, the assumption of plane wave, on which MT relies, is valid for a limited range of periods. Modeling of the induction by a Gaussian electrojet allowed us to characterize the source effect associated with the equatorial electrojet, and to determine for each studied region the period ranges for which the source effect is negligible. We have also shown that the source effect associated with the equatorial electrojet depends on the main features of the electrical structure of the basement, and the distance between the center of the equatorial electrojet and the location of the considered station. In the Red River Delta at the north, the MT profile is oriented SW-NE. It is about 32 km long, and goes across the major faults of the Red River fault system. MT data were applied 2-D inversion to obtain a electrical cross-section for the first three kilometers of the crust. This electrical cross-section, a density cross-section obtained by modeling of gravity data collected along the same profile, and information derived from holes drilled in the vicinity of the profile, both were used to construct a geological section of the study area. In the region of the Saigon River fault, the magnetotelluric profile is about 15 km long. It goes across the supposed location of the fault. The electrical structure of the first three kilometers of the crust was determined by 2-D inversion of data for periods which are not affected by the equatorial electrojet (< 0.7 s). The electrical cross-section obtained allowed us to propose a new location for the Saigon River fault; it corresponds to the boundary between a resistant domain, the block of Da Lat in the north-east, and a less resistant domain, the block of Can Tho in the south-west. This new location is about 2.2 km southwest of the location currently assumed for this fault. In West Africa, we have shown that electromagnetic impedances derived using day time data are affected by the equatorial electrojet for the whole range of period studied (> 120 s), so these data have not been used to determine the electrical structure of the crust and the upper mantle. The 2-D inversion of nighttime data shows the presence of a subvertical structure, relatively conductive, which separates the West African Craton which is very resistant from the geological structures beneath the Senegal River basin.
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  • HAL Id : tel-00669815, version 1

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Viet-Hung Luu. Etude du champ électromagnétique et interprétation de données magnétotellurique. Géophysique [physics.geo-ph]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2011. Français. ⟨tel-00669815⟩

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