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Bacteriophage SPP1 entry into the host cell

Abstract : The four main steps of bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) lytic infection are (i) specific recognition and genome entry into the host bacterium, (ii) replication of the viral genome, (iii) assembly of viral particles, and (iv) their release, leading in most cases to cell lysis. Although the course of individual steps of the viral infection cycle has been relatively well established, the details of how viral DNA transits from the virion to the host cytoplasm and of how the cellular environment catalyzes and possibly organizes the entire process remain poorly understood.Tailed bacteriophages are by far the most abundant viruses that infect Eubacteria. The first event in their infection is recognition of a receptor on the surface of host bacterium by the phage adsorption machinery. The barriers that the infectious particle overcomes subsequently are the cell wall and the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria. This implies a localized degradation of the wall and the flow of its double stranded DNA (dsDNA) through a hydrophilic pore in the membrane. The lineards DNA molecule is most frequently circularized in the cytoplasm followed by its replication. In this study we used bacteriophage SPP1 that infects the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis as a model system to dissect the different steps leading to transfer of the phage genome from the viral capsid to the host cell cytoplasm.normally to B. subtilis but do not trigger depolarization of the CM. Attachment of intact SPP1 particles is thus required for phage-induced depolarization.The beginning of B. subtilis infection by bacteriophage SPP1 was followed inspace and time. The position of SPP1 binding at the cell surface was imaged by fluorescence microscopy using virus particles labeled with "quantum dots". We found that SPP1 reversible adsorption occurs preferentially at the cell poles. This initial binding facilitates irreversible adsorption to the SPP1 phage receptor protein YueB,which is encoded by a putative type VII secretion system gene cluster.Immunostaining and YueB – GFP fusion showed that the phage receptor protein YueB is found over the entire cell surface. It concentrates at the bacterial poles too,and displays a punctate distribution over the sidewalls. The dynamics of SPP1 DNA entry and replication was visualised in real time by assaying specific binding of a fluorescent protein to tandem sequences present in the SPP1 genome. During infection, most of the infecting phages DNA entered and replicated near the bacterial poles in a defined focus. Therefore, SPP1 assembles a replication factory at a specific location in the host cell cytoplasm. DNA delivery to the cytoplasm depends on millimolar concentrations of Ca2+ allowing uncoupling it from the precedent steps of SPP1 adsorption to the cell envelope and CM depolarization that require only micromolar amounts of this divalent cation. A model describing the early events of bacteriophage SPP1 infection is presented.
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  • HAL Id : tel-00669654, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 245626

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Citation

Lina Jakutyte. Bacteriophage SPP1 entry into the host cell. Agricultural sciences. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI; Vilniaus universitetas, 2011. English. ⟨NNT : 2011PA114842⟩. ⟨tel-00669654⟩

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