Abstract : This thesis studies local crude oil transportation systems with a pipe network architecture. Two representative systems, belonging to PDVSA (Venezuelan oil company), have been studied: the Guaraguao Crude Oil Seaport and the Punta de Palmas Tanks Yard. In this systems, connections, called "alignments", are established by opening/closing valves using a SCADA(Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system. Alignment choice is made based on optimization criteria. Interferences minimization with other alignments, related to the notion of operative capacity, has been identified as the most important criterion. The contributions of this thesis are based on graph modelling and algorithms from operational research. The main goal is to provide analysis tools allowing alignment choice optimization. Indexes permitting the quantification of alignments or failures impact on the operative capacity of the system are proposed. Minimizing the impact on the operative capacity will correspond to minimizing interferences with potential alignments. An algorithm computing these indexes is presented, as well as complementary developments such as a path search algorithm, an algorithm for critical elements determination, and algorithm for alignments using pumps. These algorithms are based on classical algorithms for the shortest path problem, the maximum flow problem and the maximum disjoint paths problem. However, they use innovative methods such as adding constraints when considering alignment sub-types, the dynamic computation of path costs based on their impact on operative capacity, and path search considering an obligatory intermediate node. These contributions can potentially be applied in areas other than oil transportation. The algorithms had been implemented in Python and had been tested using real data from the studied systems. The middle term goal of these works is the development of assistance software for decision making.