Abstract : This PhD Thesis deals with the study of new multilevel structures. At the beginning of this work, a new methodology to create new multilevel structures has been conceived. To evaluate the performances of these structures, there are many possibilities: number of output voltage levels, number of components, and the quality of the converters' output waveforms. The list of criteria is not exhaustive. One technique to obtain an output multilevel waveform is to split the DC link in several capacitors. There is a limitation since putting more than two capacitors in serial connection leads to an unbalancing of these voltage capacitors. Several solutions are possible to balance these voltages. The first one uses the control of the structure in a three phase application, using a space vector modulation and minimizing the energy stored in the DC link. The second solution consists in using auxiliary circuits, which realize an energy transfer between one capacitor to another through an inductor. The drawback of this method is the high number of components. This problem can be reduced sharing some components between the three phases of the converter. The third part of this study is related to multicell converters, structures with very interesting good properties. New converter structures mix serial and parallel multicell converters, to obtain a hybrid converter with similar performances to the two basic converters. An experimental prototype was built to validate the results of the PhD. The digital control of this hybrid structure was made with a FPGA where two DSP processors were implemented.