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Etude de l'implication des cellules microgliales et de l'α-synucleine dans la maladie neurodégénérative de Parkinson

Abstract : Age-related neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson’s disease take an enormous toll on individuals and on society. Despite extensive efforts, Parkinson’s disease remains incurable and only very limited treatments exist. Indeed, Parkinson’s pathogenesis is still not clear and research on its molecular mechanisms is ongoing. In this study, we focused our interest on two abnormal events occurring in Parkinson’s patients, namely α-synuclein aggregation and microglial activation. We first investigated α-synuclein and its abnormal polymerisation. For this purpose, we developed novel methods, which allowed the in vitro production of different types of α-synuclein oligomers. Using highly sensitive biophysical methods, we characterised these different oligomers at a single-particle level. Then, we tested their biological effects on neurons. Afterwards, we studied microglial activation. We concentrated our efforts on two axes, namely age-related changes in microglial function and K+ channels in microglia. We showed that Kv1.3 and Kir2.1 K+ channels are involved in microglial activation. In parallel, we developed a new approach, which allows the effective isolation and culture of primary microglia from adult mouse brains. Adult primary microglia presented subtle but crucial differences in comparison to microglia from neo-natal mice, confirming the hypothesis of age-related changes of microglia. Taken together, our results support the hypotheses that microglial modulation or inhibition of α-synuclein oligomerisation are possible therapeutic strategies against Parkinson's disease.
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Simon Moussaud. Etude de l'implication des cellules microgliales et de l'α-synucleine dans la maladie neurodégénérative de Parkinson. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Bourgogne, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011DIJOS013⟩. ⟨tel-00668186⟩

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