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Optical development for second- and third-generation gravitational-wave detectors: stable recycling cavities for advanced virgo and higher-order Laguerre-Gauss modes

Massimo Granata 1
1 APC - Cosmologie
APC (UMR_7164) - AstroParticule et Cosmologie
Abstract : Gravitational waves are ripples in the fabric of space-time which might be detected with a Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer. Several interferometers are presently operating: LIGO, Virgo, GEO. These instruments almost reached the design sensitivity and completed several observational runs. No detection is reported, but the data have been used to constraint the emission of astrophysical sources in the nearby Universe. Advanced Virgo, Advanced LIGO and LCGT are projects to increase the sensitivity of initial detectors by an order of magnitude, allowing the first direct detection. Their construction is presently ongoing. In the meanwhile, the project of a detector (Einstein Telescope) of higher sensitivity is under study. In this thesis, two optical developments for future generation gravitational-wave interferometric detectors are presented. The first topic concerns the optical design of stable recycling cavities for Advanced Virgo, a way to reduce interferometric aberrations in presence of thermal effects and interferometer imperfections. Their main features are presented, and the motivations for their implementation are discussed. A process for their optical design is established, and several layouts are drawn. A final configuration is retained, and its optical performances are discussed. The second topic concerns the use of higher-order Laguerre-Gauss laser modes. The use of these modes has been suggested to reduce the mirror thermal noise, the main limitation for the sensitivity of the future gravitational-wave interferometric detectors. After a brief introduction about these modes, the results of of a table-top experiment to test the generation of an LG33 mode with a diffractive plate and a Fabry-Perot cavity are presented. The mode is used in a Michelson interferometer, to demonstrate the ability of interferometric measurements with non-Gaussian beams. The implementation of these modes in future detectors is discussed.
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Massimo Granata. Optical development for second- and third-generation gravitational-wave detectors: stable recycling cavities for advanced virgo and higher-order Laguerre-Gauss modes. Optics [physics.optics]. Université Paris-Diderot - Paris VII; Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, 2011. English. ⟨tel-00665858⟩

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