Abstract : The purpose of the work presented in this manuscript is to better understand the relations between the microstructure of nanocrystallized metal coatings and their electrochemical and mechanical properties. Nickel deposits are elaborated by electrodeposition using direct current and pulse current in a nickel sulphamate bath with salts of high purity and without additive, in order to minimize the risks of contamination. A precise characterization of the developed metallurgical states is carried out by means of various techniques (SEM, TEM, XRD, AFM, EBSD, SIMS, GDOES) in order to evaluate the microstructure on various scales (grain sizes, textures, internal stresses, type of grain boundaries) and to identify contaminants. Three types of texture were developed associated with various sizes of structural heterogeneities from about one micrometer to a few dozens of nanometers. A "scale" law, allowing to correlating the results obtained by the various methods of analysis was shown. The grain size refinement results in an increase of contamination in the deposits and involves an increase of microhardness. The Hall-Petch law is influenced by the crystallographic orientation which could be connected to the nature of grain boundaries and the contamination of the coatings. A preliminary study of the electrochemical reactivity in acidic media showed the marked role of the surface effects (contamination and roughness of surface). Electrolytic polishing of the coatings highlights the influence of the metallurgical parameters (grain size, contamination, nature of grains boundaries) on the reactivity. The polarization curves in anodic domain and cathodic domains were simulated using kinetic models. The obtained results suggest that grain boundaries can either activate or deactivate the electrochemical kinetics according to the considered stage, these effects being able to be constrained by the presence of impurities. The modifications of mechanical and electrochemical properties of the coatings cannot be ascribed to a reduction of the grain size alone.