. Carotte, . Benjo, . Cra, . Minus, . Seb et al., Bibou? et le reste de la compagnie du BDZ? Je les remercie pour m'avoir permis de m'évader un peu de la thèse grâce aux bons moments que l'on a pu partager mais également d'avoir supporté mes sautes d'humeur et de m'avoir soutenue?Paleobiochemistry, Abelson PH, vol.53, pp.97-101, 1954.

P. Abelson, Organic constituents of fossils, pp.107-109, 1955.

L. Addadi, D. Joester, F. Nudelman, and S. Weiner, Mollusk Shell Formation: A source of new concepts for understanding biomineralization processes, Chem. Eur, 2006.

I. Al-aasm and J. Veizer, Diagenetic stabilization of aragonite and low-Mg calcite, I. Trace elements in rudists, Journal of sedimentary Petrology, vol.56, issue.1, pp.138-152, 1986.

R. Ambleer and M. Daniel, Proteins and Molecular Palaeontology [and Discussion], Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.333, issue.1268, pp.381-389, 1268.
DOI : 10.1098/rstb.1991.0088

W. Armstrong, L. Halstead, F. Reed, and L. Wood, Fossil Proteins in Vertebrate Calcified Tissues, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.301, issue.1106, pp.301-343, 1106.
DOI : 10.1098/rstb.1983.0026

A. Arnaud-vanneau, Calcaires, Environnements carbonatés et facteurs écologiques, 2007.

J. Asara, M. Schweitzer, L. Freimark, M. Phillips, and L. Cantley, Protein Sequences from Mastodon and Tyrannosaurus Rex Revealed by Mass Spectrometry, Science, vol.316, issue.5822, pp.316-280, 2007.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1137614

G. Atlan, N. Balmain, S. Berland, B. Vidal, and E. Lopez, Reconstruction of human maxillary defects with nacre powder: histological evidence for bone regeneration, Comptes Rendus de l'Acad??mie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie, vol.320, issue.3, pp.253-258, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0764-4469(97)86933-8

M. Aumailley and T. Krieg, Laminins: A Family of Diverse Multifunctional Molecules of Basement Membranes, Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol.106, issue.2, pp.209-214, 1996.
DOI : 10.1111/1523-1747.ep12340471

M. Aumailley and P. Rousselle, Laminins of the dermo???epidermal junction, Matrix Biology, vol.18, issue.1, pp.19-28, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0945-053X(98)00004-3

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00314041

J. Bada and R. Schroeder, Racemization of isoleucine in calcareous marine sediments: Kinetics and mechanism, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.15, issue.1, pp.1-11, 1972.
DOI : 10.1016/0012-821X(72)90022-2

S. Baker, S. Hopkinson, M. Fitchmun, G. Andreason, F. Frasier et al., Laminin-5 and hemidesmosomes: role of the a3 subunit in hemidesmosome stability and assembly, J. Cell Sci, vol.109, pp.2509-2520, 1996.

J. P. Barbet, L'ossification. Polycopie d'histologie, embryologie, cytogénétique, 1999.

M. J. Barnes, FUNCTION OF ASCORBIC ACID IN COLLAGEN METABOLISM, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol.144, issue.1 Second Confer, pp.264-277, 1975.
DOI : 10.1016/0003-9861(74)90024-1

L. Bédouet, M. Schuller, F. Marin, C. Milet, L. Lopez et al., Soluble proteins of the nacre of the giant oyster Pinctada maxima and of the abalone Haliotis tuberculata:, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol.128, issue.3, pp.389-400, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S1096-4959(00)00337-7

L. Bédouet, F. Rusconi, M. Rousseau, D. Duplat, M. A. Dubost et al., Identification of low molecular weight molecules as new components of the nacre organic matrix, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol.144, issue.4, pp.532-543, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cbpb.2006.05.012

C. Bellows, J. Aubin, and J. Heersche, Physiological concentrations of glucocorticoids stimulate formation of bone nodules from isolated rat calvaria cells in vitro, Endocrinology, vol.21, issue.6, pp.1985-1992, 1987.

M. Berridge, P. Lipp, and M. Bootman, Calcium signalling, Current Biology, vol.9, issue.5, pp.157-159, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0960-9822(99)80101-8

M. Berridge, P. Lipp, and M. Bootman, The versatility and universatility of calcium signalling, Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, vol.1, issue.1, pp.11-21, 2000.
DOI : 10.1038/35036035

U. Bhargava, M. Bar-lev, C. Bellows, and J. Aubin, Ultrastructural analysis of bone nodules formed in vitro by isolated fetal rat calvaria cellsNon-collagenous matrix proteins and their role in mineralization, Bone Bone Miner, vol.6, issue.93, pp.155-111, 1988.

X. Bourrat, L. Francke, E. Lopez, M. Rousseau, P. Stempfle et al., Nacre biocrystal thermal behaviour, CrystEngComm, vol.53, issue.4, pp.1205-1208, 2007.
DOI : 10.1039/b709388h

R. Bowen, Endocrine control of calcium and phosphate homeostasis, 2003.

S. Boyce, A. Supp, V. Swope, and G. Warden, Vitamin C Regulates Keratinocyte Viability, Epidermal Barrier, and Basement Membrane In Vitro, and Reduces Wound Contraction After Grafting of Cultured Skin Substitutes, Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol.118, issue.4, pp.565-572, 2002.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1523-1747.2002.01717.x

P. Brookes, Y. Yoon, J. Robotham, M. Anders, and S. Sheu, Calcium, ATP, and ROS: a mitochondrial love-hate triangle, AJP: Cell Physiology, vol.287, issue.4, pp.817-833, 2004.
DOI : 10.1152/ajpcell.00139.2004

B. Refitzpatrick, T. Eisen, A. Wolff, K. Freedberg, I. Austen et al., Basement Membranes, In: Dermatology in General Medicine, vol.329, 1993.

R. Cano, H. Poinar, N. Pieniazek, A. Acra, and G. Poinar, Amplification and sequencing of DNA from a 120???135-million-year-old weevil, Nature, vol.363, issue.6429, pp.536-538, 1993.
DOI : 10.1038/363536a0

F. Cappuccio, R. Kalaitzidis, S. Duneclift, and J. Eastwood, Unravelling the links between calcium excretion, salt intake, hypertension, kidney stones and bone metabolism, J. Nephrol. Review, vol.13, issue.3, pp.169-77, 2000.

W. Carter, M. Ryan, and P. Gahr, Epiligrin, a new cell adhesion ligand for integrin ??3??1 in epithelial basement membranes, Cell, vol.65, issue.4, pp.599-610, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0092-8674(91)90092-D

H. Chamley and J. Masse, Sur la signification des minéraux argileux dans les sédiments barrémiens et bédouliens de Provence (SE de la France) », IX e Congrès International Sédimentologie, pp.25-29, 1975.

M. Chang and J. Tanaka, FT-IR study for hydroxyapatite/collagen nanocomposite cross-linked by glutaraldehyde, Biomaterials, vol.23, issue.24, pp.4811-4818, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0142-9612(02)00232-6

F. Chang, G. Li, M. Haws, and T. Niu, Element concentrations in shell of Pinctada margaritifera from French Polynesia and evaluation for using as a food supplement, Food Chemistry, vol.104, issue.3, pp.1171-1176, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.01.032

D. Chateigner, S. Ouhenia, C. Krauss, C. Hedegaard, O. Gil et al., Voyaging around nacre with the X-ray shuttle: From bio-mineralisation to prosthetics via mollusc phylogeny, Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol.528, issue.1, pp.37-51, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.msea.2010.07.032

E. Clark and J. Brugge, Integrins and signal transduction pathways: the road taken, Science, vol.268, issue.5208, pp.268-233, 1995.
DOI : 10.1126/science.7716514

E. Cobabe and L. Pratt, Molecular and isotopic compositions of lipids in bivalve shells: A new prospect for molecular paleontology, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.59, issue.1, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0016-7037(94)00374-U

C. Cormier, Vitamine D et??calcium, Revue du Rhumatisme, vol.73, issue.8, pp.846-851, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rhum.2006.05.009

B. Coulomb, C. Lebreton, and L. Dubertret, Influence of Human Dermal Fibroblasts on Epidermalization, Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol.92, issue.1, pp.122-125, 1989.
DOI : 10.1111/1523-1747.ep13071335

P. Cubillasa, S. Kfhlerb, M. Prieto, C. Charratb, and E. Oelkersb, Experimental determination of the dissolution rates of calcite, aragonite, and bivalves, Chemical Geology, vol.216, issue.1-2, pp.59-77, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2004.11.009

J. Cuif, Y. Dauphin, A. Denis, P. Gautret, S. Kiyashko et al., Factors of early diagenesis incalcareous biominerals: example of a Porites skeleton from New- Caledonia, Geobios, vol.1, pp.30-171, 1997.

J. Cuif, Y. Dauphin, and P. Gautret, Compositional diversity of soluble mineralizing matrices in some recent coral skeletons compared to fine-scale growth structures of fibres: discussion of consequences for biomineralization and diagenesis, International Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.88, issue.3, pp.582-592, 1999.
DOI : 10.1007/s005310050286

J. Curtis and D. Krinsley, The detection of minor diagenetic alteration in shell material, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.29, issue.2, pp.71-84, 1965.
DOI : 10.1016/0016-7037(65)90118-3

B. Dale, J. Scofield, H. Hennings, J. Stanley, and S. Yuspa, Identification of Filaggrin in Cultured Mouse Keratinocytes and Its Regulation by Calcium, Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol.81, issue.1, pp.90-95, 1983.
DOI : 10.1111/1523-1747.ep12540769

Y. Dauphin, Comparative studies of skeletal soluble matrices from some Scleractinian corals and Molluscs, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol.28, issue.4, pp.293-304, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0141-8130(01)00124-6

Y. Dauphin, Fossil organic matrices of the Callovian aragonitic ammonites from Lukow (Poland): location and composition, International Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.91, issue.6, pp.1071-1080, 2002.
DOI : 10.1007/s00531-002-0262-2

Y. Dauphin, Structure and composition of the septal nacreous layer of Nautilus macromphalus L. (Mollusca, Cephalopoda), Zoology, vol.109, issue.2, pp.85-95, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.zool.2005.08.005

Y. Dauphin and A. Denis, Structure and composition of the aragonitic crossed lamellar layers in six species of Bivalvia and Gastropoda, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, vol.126, issue.3, pp.367-377, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S1095-6433(00)00213-0

K. Davies, R. Heaney, R. Recker, J. Lappe, M. Barger-lux et al., Calcium Intake and Body Weight, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol.85, issue.12, pp.4635-4638, 2000.
DOI : 10.1210/jc.85.12.4635

D. Vernejoul, M. Marie, and P. , Cellules osseuses et remodelage osseux., Maladies métaboliques osseuses de l'adulte, pp.3-16, 1996.
DOI : 10.4267/10608/2832

A. Dissaux, X. Bourrat, E. Lopez, E. Lati, and P. Gasser, Regulated stimulation of dermis and dermal-epidermal junction of human skin with topical application of calcifying molecules

A. Dissaux, X. Bourrat, G. Gabant, M. Cadene, P. Gautret et al., Limestones, a source of proteins and lipids", to be submitted to, J. of Structural Biology

A. Dissaux, X. Bourrat, E. Lopez, E. Lati, and P. Gasser, Topical activity of calcium on human skin mediated with fossil molecules, submitted to Journal of Investigative Dermatology

A. Dissaux, X. Bourrat, E. Lopez, V. Barbin, L. Barbansson et al., Diagenesis and preservation of biomineralization organic matrix in platform limestones

D. Orbigny and A. , Prodrome de paléontologie stratigraphique universelle des animaux mollusques et rayonnés fossiles, 1850.

B. Doyle, Infrared spectroscopy of collagen and collagen-like polypeptides, Biopolymers, vol.52, issue.5, pp.937-957, 1975.
DOI : 10.1002/bip.1975.360140505

F. Duboeuf, P. Braillon, M. Chapuy, P. Haond, C. Hardouin et al., Bone mineral density of the hip measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in normal elderly women and in patients with hip fracture, Osteoporosis International, vol.44, issue.4, pp.242-249, 1991.
DOI : 10.1007/BF03187468

R. Eichner, Epidermal effects of retinoids: In vitro studies, Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol.15, issue.4, pp.789-797, 1986.
DOI : 10.1016/S0190-9622(86)70235-1

P. Elias, Epidermal effects of retinoids: Supramolecular observations and clinical implications, Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol.15, issue.4, pp.797-809, 1986.
DOI : 10.1016/S0190-9622(86)70236-3

P. Elias and G. Menon, Structural and Lipid Biochemical Correlates of the Epidermal Permeability Barrier, Adv. Lipid. Res, vol.24, pp.1-26, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/B978-0-12-024924-4.50005-5

P. Elias, S. Ahn, B. Brown, D. Crumrine, and K. Feingold, Origin of the Epidermal Calcium Gradient: Regulation by Barrier Status and Role of Active vs Passive Mechanisms, Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol.119, issue.6, pp.1269-1274, 2002.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1523-1747.2002.19622.x

P. Elias, S. Ahn, M. Denda, B. Brown, D. Crumrine et al., Modulations in Epidermal Calcium Regulate the Expression of Differentiation-Specific Markers, Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol.119, issue.5, pp.1128-1136, 2002.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1523-1747.2002.19512.x

E. Epaschalis, E. Betts, E. Dicarlo, R. Mendelsohn, and A. Boskey, FTIR microspectroscopic analysis of normal human cortical and trabecular bone, Cacif, 1997.

J. Espitalié, G. Deroo, and F. Marquis, la pyrolyse Rock-Eval et ses applications, pp.563-579, 1985.

A. Evans and D. Marshall, The Mechanical Behavior of Ceramic Matrix Composites, Acta Metallurgica, vol.37, issue.10, pp.2567-2583, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/B978-0-08-034341-9.50251-5

B. Farre and Y. Dauphin, Lipids from the nacreous and prismatic layers of two Pteriomorpha Mollusc shells, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol.152, issue.2, pp.103-109, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cbpb.2008.10.003

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00468415

G. Fisher and J. Voorhees, Molecular mechanisms of retinoid actions in skin, Faseb J, vol.10, pp.1002-1013, 1996.

A. Flood, U. Peters, N. Chatterjee, L. Jr, J. Schairer et al., Calcium from Diet and supplements is associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective cohort of women, Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, vol.14, issue.1, pp.126-132, 2005.

R. Griffin, A. Chamberlain, G. Hotz, K. Penkman, and M. Collins, Age estimation of archaeological remains using amino acid racemization in dental enamel: A comparison of morphological, biochemical, and known ages-at-death, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol.29, issue.2, pp.244-252, 2009.
DOI : 10.1002/ajpa.21058

A. Hall and W. Kennedy, Aragonite in Fossils, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.168, issue.1013, pp.377-412, 1967.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1967.0071

P. Hare, V. Endt, D. Kokis, and J. , Protein and Amino Acid Diagenesis Dating, In Chronometric Datin in Archeology, 2002.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4757-9694-0_9

M. Hautmann, Shell mineralogical trends in epifaunal Mesozoic bivalves and their relationship to seawater chemistry and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, Facies, vol.137, issue.3, pp.417-433, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/s10347-005-0029-x

R. Heaney, How does bone support calcium homeostasis?, Bone, vol.33, issue.3, pp.264-268, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S8756-3282(03)00218-7

P. Henthorn, Alkaline Phosphatase In: Principles of bone biology, pp.197-206, 1996.

R. Higuchi, B. Bowman, M. Freiberger, A. Ryder, and A. Wilson, DNA sequences from the quagga, an extinct member of the horse family, Nature, vol.214, issue.5991, pp.282-284, 1984.
DOI : 10.1038/312282a0

P. Hill, Bone remodelling., British Journal of Orthodontics, vol.17, issue.2, pp.101-107, 1998.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01116610

L. Hottinger, « Les organismes constructeurs sur la plateforme du golfe d'Aqaba (Mer Rouge) et les mechanismes régissant leur répartition, Geobios (Lyon), vol.8, pp.241-249, 1984.

B. Hudson, S. Reeders, and K. Tryggvason, Type IV collagen: structures, gene organization and role in human diseases, J. Biol. Chem, vol.268, pp.26033-26036, 1993.

N. Huq, S. Rambaud, L. Teh, A. Davies, B. Mcculloch et al., Immunochemical detection and characterisation of osteocalcin from moa bone, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.129, issue.3, pp.714-720, 1985.
DOI : 10.1016/0006-291X(85)91950-3

A. Ingalls, C. Lee, and E. Druffel, Preservation of organic matter in mound-forming coral skeletons, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.67, issue.15, pp.2827-2841, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0016-7037(03)00079-6

A. Jackson, J. Vincent, and R. Turner, The Mechanical Design of Nacre, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.234, issue.1277, pp.415-440, 1277.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1988.0056

H. Jones, D. Blanc, and W. Cunliffe, 13-CIS RETINOIC ACID AND ACNE, The Lancet, vol.316, issue.8203, pp.1048-1049, 1980.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(80)92273-4

J. Kanitakis, Structure histologique de la peau humaine, Biologie de la peau humaine, 1995.

J. Kass-wolff, Calcium in Women: Healthy Bones and Much More, Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, vol.33, issue.1, pp.21-33, 2004.
DOI : 10.1177/0884217503258280

S. Kasugai, R. Todescan, T. Nagata, K. Yao, W. Butler et al., Expression of bone matrix proteins associated with mineralized tissue formation by adult rat bone marrow cells in vitro: Inductive effects of dexamethasone on the osteoblastic phenotype, Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol.64, issue.1, pp.111-120, 1991.
DOI : 10.1002/jcp.1041470115

G. Kaya, Dermatoporose, Annales de Dermatologie et de V??n??r??ologie, vol.141, issue.6-7, p.155, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.annder.2014.04.214

G. Kaya, I. Rodriguez, J. Jorcano, P. Vassalli, and I. Stamenkovic, Selective suppression of CD44 in keratinocytes of mice bearing an antisense CD44 transgene driven by a tissue-specific promoter disrupts hyaluronate metabolism in the skin and impairs keratinocyte proliferation., Genes & Development, vol.11, issue.8, pp.11-996, 1997.
DOI : 10.1101/gad.11.8.996

G. Kelly, Squalene and Its Potential Clinical Uses, Alternative medicine review, vol.4, issue.1, pp.29-36, 1999.

U. Laemmli, Cleavage of Structural Proteins during the Assembly of the Head of Bacteriophage T4, Nature, vol.244, issue.5259, pp.227-680, 1970.
DOI : 10.1038/227680a0

M. Lamghari, M. Almeida, S. Berland, H. Huet, A. Laurent et al., Stimulation of bone marrow cells and bone formation by nacre: in vivo and in vitro studies, Bone, issue.2, pp.15-91, 1999.

T. Laurent and J. Fraser, Hyaluronan, The Faseb Journal, vol.6, issue.7, pp.2397-2404, 1992.

L. Faou and A. , Processus d'ostéoinduction généré par la nacre : mise en évidence et régulation in vivo, Thèse pour le doctorat du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 1996.

E. Lopez, M. Rousseau, and X. Bourrat, Mother-of-pearl, biomineralization and their materia medica, Biofutur, issue.27, pp.291-53, 2008.

L. Machhour, J. Masse, J. Oudin, B. Lambert, and P. Lapointe, Petroleum potential of dysaerobic carbonate source rocks in an intra-shelf basin; the Lower Cretaceous of Provence, France, Petroleum Geoscience, vol.4, issue.2, pp.139-146, 1998.
DOI : 10.1144/petgeo.4.2.139

H. Mägert, L. Ständker, P. Kreutzmann, H. Zucht, M. Reinecke et al., LEKTI, a Novel 15-Domain Type of Human Serine Proteinase Inhibitor, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.274, issue.31, pp.274-21499, 1999.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.274.31.21499

L. Mahan and S. Escott-stump, Minerals", In: Krause's Food, Nutrition and Diet Therapy, pp.124-130, 1996.

G. Major, F. Alarie, J. Dore, S. Phouttama, and A. Tremblay, Supplementation with calcium + vitamin D enhances the beneficial effect of weight loss on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, Am J Clin Nutr, vol.85, issue.1, pp.54-59, 2007.

C. Maniatopoulos, J. Sodek, and A. Melcher, Bone formation in vitro by stromal cells obtained from bone marrow of young adult rats, Cell and Tissue Research, vol.254, issue.2, pp.317-330, 1988.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00225804

S. Mann, Biomineralization, Principles and Concepts in Bioinorganic Materials Chemistry, 2001.

F. Marin, L. Pereira, and P. Westbroek, Large-Scale Fractionation of Molluscan Shell Matrix, Protein Expression and Purification, vol.23, issue.1, pp.175-179, 2001.
DOI : 10.1006/prep.2001.1487

F. Marin, D. Groot, K. Westbroek, and P. , Screening molluscan cDNA expression libraries with anti-shell matrix antibodies, Protein Expression and Purification, vol.30, issue.2, pp.246-252, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S1046-5928(03)00105-0

F. Marin and G. Luquet, Molluscan shell proteins, Comptes Rendus Palevol, vol.3, issue.6-7, pp.6-7, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.crpv.2004.07.009

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00197133

F. Marin, B. Pokroy, G. Luquet, P. Layrolle, D. Groot et al., Protein mapping of calcium carbonate biominerals by immunogold, Biomaterials, vol.28, issue.14, pp.2368-2377, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2007.01.029

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00166074

P. Marinkovich, D. Keene, C. Rimberg, and R. Burgeson, Cellular origin of the dermal-epidermal basement membrane, Developmental Dynamics, vol.23, issue.4, pp.255-267, 1993.
DOI : 10.1002/aja.1001970404

C. Marionnet, C. Vioux-chagnoleau, C. Pierrard, J. Sok, D. Asselineau et al., Morphogenesis of dermal-epidermal junction in a model of reconstructed skin: beneficial effects of vitamin C, Experimental Dermatology, vol.106, issue.8, pp.625-633, 2006.
DOI : 10.1111/j.0906-6705.2005.00316.x

J. Masse, Les calcaires urgoniens de Provence (Valanginien-Aptien inférieur) Stratigraphie, paléontologie, les paléoenvironnements et leur évolution, Thèse Sci. Marseille, pp.445-60, 1976.
DOI : 10.1016/s0016-6995(80)80069-6

J. Masse, Valangian-Early Aptian Carbonate Platforms form Provence, Southeastern France Cretaceous Carbonate Platforms, Memoire, vol.56, pp.363-373, 1993.

J. Masse, Rudists as gregarious sediment-dwellers, not reef-builders, on Cretaceous carbonate platforms, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol.118, pp.245-267, 1995.

J. Masse and J. Philip, Observation sur la croissance et l'ontogenèse du test des radiolitidae (Rudistes), C.R. Acad. Sc. Paris, vol.274, pp.3202-3205, 1972.

J. Masse and J. Philip, Paléogéographie et tectonique du Crétacé moyen en Provence : révision du concept d'isthme durancien, 1976.

J. Masse and J. Philip, CRETACEOUS CORAL-RUDIST BUILDUPS OF FRANCE, European Fossil Reef Models. SEPM Spec. Publ. 30, pp.399-426, 1981.
DOI : 10.2110/pec.81.30.0399

J. Masse and M. Fenerci-masse, Carbonate production by rudist bivalves. The record of Late Barremian requieniid communities from Provence (SE France), Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol.234, issue.2-4, pp.2-4, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.palaeo.2005.10.010

T. Masunaga, H. Shimizu, A. Ishiko, Y. Tomita, D. Aberdam et al., Localization of laminin-5 in the epidermal basement membrane., Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry, vol.44, issue.11, pp.44-1223, 1996.
DOI : 10.1177/44.11.8918896

P. Matter, F. Davidson, and R. Wyckoff, THE COMPOSITION OF FOSSIL OYSTER SHELL PROTEINS, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, pp.970-972, 1969.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.64.3.970

T. Mehrel, D. Hohl, J. Rothnagel, M. Longley, D. Bundman et al., Identification of a major keratinocyte cell envelope protein, loricrin, Cell, vol.61, issue.6, pp.61-1103, 1990.
DOI : 10.1016/0092-8674(90)90073-N

G. Menon, S. Grayson, and P. Elias, Ionic Calcium Reservoirs in Mammalian Epidermis: Ultrastructural Localization by Ion-Capture Cytochemistry, Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol.84, issue.6, pp.508-512, 1985.
DOI : 10.1111/1523-1747.ep12273485

G. Menon and P. Elias, Ultrastructural Localization of Calcium in Psoriatic and Normal Human Epidermis, Archives of Dermatology, vol.127, issue.1, pp.57-63, 1991.
DOI : 10.1001/archderm.1991.01680010067010

G. Menon, L. Price, B. Bommannan, P. Elias, and K. Feingold, Selective Obliteration of the Epidermal Calcium Gradient Leads to Enhanced Lamellar Body Secretion, Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol.102, issue.5, pp.789-795, 1994.
DOI : 10.1111/1523-1747.ep12377921

K. Meyer and J. Palmer, The polysaccharide of the vitreous humor, J. Biol, 1934.

C. Milet, S. Berland, M. Lamghari, L. Mouries, C. Jolly et al., Conservation of signal molecules involved in biomineralisation control in calcifying matrices of bone and shell, Comptes Rendus Palevol, vol.3, issue.6-7, pp.6-7, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.crpv.2004.07.010

R. Mitterer, Amino Acid Composition of Organic Matrix in Calcareous Oolites, Science, vol.162, issue.3861, pp.1498-1499, 1968.
DOI : 10.1126/science.162.3861.1498

R. Mitterer, R. Cunningham, and . Jr, THE INTERACTION OF NATURAL ORGANIC MATTER WITH GRAIN SURFACES: IMPLICATIONS FOR CALCIUM CARBONATE PRECIPITATION, 1985.
DOI : 10.2110/pec.85.36.0017

J. Morse, J. Zullig, L. Bernstein, F. Millero, P. Milne et al., Chemistry of calcium carbonate-rich shallow water sediments in the Bahamas, American Journal of Science, vol.285, issue.2, pp.147-185, 1985.
DOI : 10.2475/ajs.285.2.147

J. Morvan, Composition cométique et/ou dermopharmaceutique et/ou alimentaire renfermant un mélange d'éléments minéraux naturels et leurs utilisations, 2009.

J. Nanchahal and R. D. , Ultrastructural localization of anionic sites at the dermo-epidermal junction in normal human skin, J. Anat, vol.176, pp.181-195, 1991.

J. Nefussi, M. Boy-lefèvre, H. Boulekbache, and N. Forest, Mineralization in vitro of matrix formed by osteoblasts isolated by collagenase digestion, Differentiation, vol.29, issue.2, pp.160-168, 1985.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1432-0436.1985.tb00310.x

J. Nefussi, D. Septier, C. P. Goldberg, M. Forest, and N. , A comparative ultrahistochemical study of glycosaminoglycans with cuprolinic blue in bone formedin vivo andin vitro, Calcified Tissue International, vol.4, issue.suppl, pp.11-19, 1989.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02556235

J. Nefussi, J. Sautier, and N. Forest, Modèle de culture et concept de surface osseux, C. R. Soc. Biol, vol.187, pp.1-13, 1993.

J. Nefussi, G. Bramia, D. Modrowskib, M. Oboeufa, and N. Foresta, Sequential Expression of Bone Matrix Proteins During Rat Calvaria Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Nodule Formation In Vitro, Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry, vol.106, issue.4, pp.493-504, 1997.
DOI : 10.1177/37.10.2789247

Z. Nemes and P. Steinert, Bricks and mortar of the epidermal barrier, Experimental & Molecular Medicine, vol.31, issue.1, pp.5-19, 1999.
DOI : 10.1038/emm.1999.2

F. Neuweiler, P. Gautret, V. Thiel, R. Lange, W. Michaelis et al., Petrology of Lower Cretaceous carbonate mud mounds (Albian, N. Spain): insights into organomineralic deposits of the geological record, Sedimentology, vol.5, issue.5, pp.837-859, 1999.
DOI : 10.1038/35248

J. Nieves, Osteoporosis: the role of micronutrients, Am. J. Clin. Nutr, vol.81, pp.1232-1239, 2005.

M. Owen and A. Friedenstein, Stromal Stem Cells: Marrow-Derived Osteogenic Precursors, Ciba Found. Symp, vol.61, issue.1, pp.42-54, 1988.
DOI : 10.1002/9780470513637.ch4

T. Owen, M. Aronow, V. Shalhoub, L. Barone, L. Wilning et al., Progressive development of the rat osteoblast phenotype in vitro: Reciprocal relationships in expression of genes associated with osteoblast proliferation and differentiation during formation of the bone extracellular matrix, Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol.148, issue.3, pp.420-430, 1990.
DOI : 10.1002/jcp.1041430304

S. Pääbo, Molecular cloning of Ancient Egyptian mummy DNA, Nature, vol.65, issue.6012, pp.644-645, 1985.
DOI : 10.1038/314644a0

S. Pääbo, R. Higuchi, and A. Wilson, Ancient DNA and polymerase chainreaction-The emerging field of molecular archaeology, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.264, issue.17, pp.9709-9712, 1989.

K. Payne and A. Veis, Fourier transform ir spectroscopy of collagen and gelatin solutions: Deconvolution of the amide I band for conformational studies, Biopolymers, vol.77, issue.11, pp.1749-1760, 1988.
DOI : 10.1002/bip.360271105

L. Pereira-mouries, Etude des composants de la matrice organique hydrosoluble de la nacre de l'huître perlière Pinctada Maxima. Bioactivité dans le processus de régénération osseuse, Thèse Biologie et Biochimie appliquées, 2003.

C. Perrin, Early diagenesis of carbonate biocrystals : isomineralogical changes in aragonite coral skeletons, Bulletin de la société géologique de France, pp.95-106, 2004.
DOI : 10.2113/175.2.95

C. Perrin and D. Smith, Decay of skeletal organic matrices and early diagenesis in coral skeletons, Comptes Rendus Palevol, vol.6, issue.4, pp.253-260, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.crpv.2007.02.003

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/mnhn-00491167

H. Petite, V. Viateau, W. Bensaïd, A. Meunier, C. De-pollak et al., Tissue-engineered bone regeneration, 2000.

J. Philip, Les formations calcaires à rudistes du Crétacé supérieur provençal et rhodanien, Thèse Sci, p.438, 1970.

R. Prince, A. Devine, S. Dhaliwal, and I. Dick, Effects of Calcium Supplementation on Clinical Fracture and Bone Structure, Archives of Internal Medicine, vol.166, issue.8, pp.869-875, 2006.
DOI : 10.1001/archinte.166.8.869

C. Prost-squarcioni and M. Heller, Histologie et histophysiologie de la peau et de ses annexes, Ann. Dermatol. Venereol, vol.132, pp.8-13, 2005.

L. Racioppi and A. Means, Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase IV in immune and inflammatory responses: novel routes for an ancient traveller, Trends in Immunology, vol.29, issue.12, pp.600-607, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.it.2008.08.005

L. Raisz, Pathogenesis of osteoporosis: concepts, conflicts, and prospects, Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.115, issue.12, pp.3318-3325, 2005.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI27071

P. Rat and A. Pascal, From the Urgonian stage to the Urgonian biosedimentary systems, Geobios, mémoire spécial, vol.3, pp.385-399, 1979.

P. Rat and A. Pascal, Les plates-formes carbonatées à rudistes, 1982.

A. Reddi and C. Huggins, Biochemical Sequences in the Transformation of Normal Fibroblasts in Adolescent Rats, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, pp.1601-1605, 1972.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.69.6.1601

P. Repellin and J. Trichet, Un exemple de diagénèse de carbonates récifaux (Atoll de Mururoa, Polynésie française), 9th International Congress of Sedimentology, pp.179-186, 1975.

R. Riding, Structure and composition of organic reefs and carbonate mud mounds: concepts and categories, Earth-Science Reviews, vol.58, issue.1-2, pp.163-231, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0012-8252(01)00089-7

R. Rosch, U. Klinge, Z. Si, K. Junge, B. Klosterhalfen et al., A role for the collagen I/III and MMP-1/-13 genes in primary inguinal hernia?, BMC Medical Genetics, vol.122, issue.Pt 4, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0002-9610(98)00183-4

D. Rosenthal, C. Griffiths, S. Yuspa, D. Roop, and J. Voorhees, Acute or Chronic Topical Retinoic Acid Treatment of Human Skin In Vivo Alters the Expression of Epidermal Transglutaminase, Loricrin, Involucrin, Filaggrin, and Keratins 6 and 13 but not Keratins 1, 10, and 14, Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol.98, issue.3, pp.343-350, 1992.
DOI : 10.1111/1523-1747.ep12499802

C. Roskelley and M. Bissell, Dynamic reciprocity revisited: a continuous, bidirectional flow of information between cells and the extracellular matrix regulates mammary epithelial cell function, Biochemistry and Cell Biology, vol.73, issue.7-8, pp.391-397, 1995.
DOI : 10.1139/o95-046

D. Ross and P. Skelton, Rudist Formations of the Cretaceous: A Palaeoecological, Sedimentological and Stratigraphical Review, Sedimentology Review, vol.1, pp.73-91, 1993.
DOI : 10.1002/9781444304534.ch5

M. Rousseau, L. Pereira-mouries, M. Almeida, C. Milet, and E. Lopez, The watersoluble matrix fraction from the nacre of Pinctada maxima produces earlier mineralization of MC3T3-E1 mouse pre-osteoblasts, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B, vol.135, pp.1-7, 2003.

M. Rousseau, E. Lopez, A. Coute, G. Mascarel, D. Smith et al., Multi-Scale Structure and Growth of Nacre: A New Model for Bioceramics, 16th International Symposium on Ceramics in Medicine, pp.16254-16256, 2004.
DOI : 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.254-256.1009

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00069533

M. Rousseau, E. Lopez, P. Stempfle, M. Brendle, L. Franke et al., Multiscale structure of sheet nacre, Biomaterials, vol.26, issue.31, pp.26-6254, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2005.03.028

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00023492

M. Rousseau, L. Bedouet, E. Lati, P. Gasser, L. Ny et al., Restoration of stratum corneum with nacre lipids, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol.145, issue.1, pp.1-9, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cbpb.2006.06.012

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00131379

P. Rousselle, G. Lunstrum, D. Keene, and R. Burgeson, Kalinin: an epithelium-specific basement membrane adhesion molecule that is a component of anchoring filaments, The Journal of Cell Biology, vol.114, issue.3, pp.567-576, 1991.
DOI : 10.1083/jcb.114.3.567

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00314053

P. Rousselle, R. Douglas, F. Ruggiero, M. Champliaud, M. Van-der-rest et al., Laminin 5 Binds the NC-1 Domain of Type VII Collagen, The Journal of Cell Biology, vol.260, issue.3, pp.719-728, 1997.
DOI : 10.1083/jcb.117.5.1119

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00314048

P. Sandberg and J. Hudson, Aragonite Relic Preservation in Jurassic Calcitereplaced Bivalves, Sedimentology, vol.30, issue.6, pp.879-892, 1983.
DOI : 10.1002/9781444304510.ch23

P. Galindo-villardon, J. Cruz-hernandez, and A. Bullon-sopelana, E-Cadherin, laminin and collagen IV expression in the evolution from dysplasia to oral squamous cell carcinoma, Oral Medicine and Pathology, vol.11, pp.100-105, 2006.

T. Scholzen and J. Gerdes, The Ki-67 protein: From the known and the unknown, Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol.19, issue.31, pp.311-322, 2000.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1097-4652(200003)182:3<311::AID-JCP1>3.0.CO;2-9

X. Shen, A. Belcher, P. Hansma, G. Stucky, and D. Morse, Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Lustrin A, a Matrix Protein from Shell and Pearl Nacre of Haliotis rufescens, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.272, issue.51, pp.32472-32481, 1997.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.272.51.32472

P. Skelton, Functional morphology of the Hippuritidae, Lethaia, vol.86, issue.4, pp.83-100, 1976.
DOI : 10.1016/0031-0182(72)90060-0

E. Somer, Minerals", In: The Essential Guide to Vitamins and Minerals, pp.89-94, 1995.

A. Sonju-clasen and I. Ruyter, Quantitative Determination of Type A and Type B Carbonate in Human Deciduous and Permanent Enamel by Means of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry, Advances in Dental Research, vol.2, issue.4, pp.523-527, 1997.
DOI : 10.1177/08959374970110042101

G. Stein, J. Lian, and T. Owen, Relationship of cell growth to the regulation of tissue-specific gene expression during osteoblast differentiation, FASEB J, vol.4, pp.3111-3123, 1990.

T. Steuber, Stable isotope sclerochronology of rudist bivalves: Growth rates and Late Cretaceous seasonality, Geology, vol.24, issue.4, pp.314-318, 1996.
DOI : 10.1130/0091-7613(1996)024<0315:SISORB>2.3.CO;2

T. Steuber, Isotopic and chemical intra-shell variations in low-Mg calcite of rudist bivalves (Mollusca-Hippuritacea): disequilibrium fractionations and late Cretaceous seasonality, International Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.88, issue.3, pp.551-570, 1999.
DOI : 10.1007/s005310050284

T. Steuber, Skeletal growth rates of Upper Cretaceous rudist bivalves: implications for carbonate production and organism-environment feedbacks, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, vol.178, issue.1, 2000.
DOI : 10.1144/GSL.SP.2000.178.01.03

P. Skelton, E. Insalaco, and T. Palmer, Carbonate Platform Systems: Components and Interactions, Geol. Soc, vol.178, pp.21-32

T. Steuber and M. Rauch, Evolution of the Mg/Ca ratio of Cretaceous seawater: Implications from the composition of biological low-Mg calcite, Marine Geology, vol.217, issue.3-4, pp.199-213, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.margeo.2005.02.012

J. Stolarski, P. Gorzelak, M. Mazur, Y. Marrocchi, and A. Meibom, Nanostructural and Geochemical Features of the Jurassic Isocrinid Columnal Ossicles, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, vol.54, issue.1, pp.69-75, 2009.
DOI : 10.4202/app.2009.0108

W. Storey and C. Leblond, MEASUREMENT OF THE RATE OF PROLIFERATION OF EPIDERMIS AND ASSOCIATED STRUCTURES, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol.94, issue.Supl., pp.537-545, 1951.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1951.tb31955.x

F. Syed and S. Khosla, Mechanisms of sex steroid effects on bone, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.328, issue.3, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.11.097

G. Sykes, M. Collins, and D. Walton, The significance of a geochemically isolated intracrystalline organic fraction within biominerals, Organic Geochemistry, vol.23, issue.11-12, pp.11-12, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0146-6380(95)00086-0

R. Timpl, Macromolecular organization of basement membranes, Current Opinion in Cell Biology, vol.8, issue.5, pp.618-624, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/S0955-0674(96)80102-5

R. Timpl, H. Rhodes, P. Robey, S. Rennard, J. Foidart et al., Laminin, a glycoprotein from basement membranes, J. Biol. Chem, vol.254, pp.9933-9937, 1979.

R. Timpl and M. Dziadek, Structure, Development and Molecules pathology of basement membranes, Int. Rev. Exp. Pathol, vol.29, pp.1-112, 1986.

J. Trichet and C. Défarge, Non-biologically supported Organomineralization, Bull. Inst. Oceanogr. De Monaco, n° special, vol.14, issue.2, pp.203-236, 1995.

M. Van-der-rest, E. Aubert-foucher, B. Dublet, D. Eichenberger, B. Font et al., Structure and function of the fibril-associated collagens, Biochemical Society Transactions, vol.19, issue.4, pp.820-824, 1991.
DOI : 10.1042/bst0190820

M. Virtanen, H. Törmä, and A. Vahlquist, Keratin 4 Upregulation by Retinoic Acid In Vivo: A Sensitive Marker for Retinoid Bioactivity in Human Epidermis1, Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol.114, issue.3, pp.487-493, 2000.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1523-1747.2000.00901.x

M. Voss-foucart, Paleoproteins des coquilles fossiles d'??ufs de dinosauriens du cretace superieur de provence, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, vol.24, issue.1, pp.31-32, 1968.
DOI : 10.1016/0010-406X(68)90954-7

J. Vuola, T. Böhling, H. Göransson, and P. Puolakkainen, Transforming growth factor ?? released from natural coral implant enhances bone growth at calvarium of mature rat, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, vol.12, issue.1, pp.152-159, 2002.
DOI : 10.1002/jbm.1228

M. Walser, ION ASSOCIATION. VI. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, INORGANIC PHOSPHATE, CITRATE AND PROTEIN IN NORMAL HUMAN PLASMA*, Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.40, issue.4, pp.723-730, 1961.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI104306

R. Watanabe, K. Wu, P. Paul, D. Marks, T. Kobayashi et al., Up-regulation of Glucosylceramide Synthase Expression and Activity during Human Keratinocyte Differentiation, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.273, issue.16, pp.9651-9655, 1998.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.273.16.9651

F. Watt, Terminal differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes, Current Opinion in Cell Biology, vol.1, issue.6, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/S0955-0674(89)80058-4

S. Weiner, H. Lowenstam, and L. Hood, Characterization of 80-million-year-old mollusk shell proteins., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, pp.73-2541, 1976.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.73.8.2541

S. Weiner, H. Lowenstam, and L. Hood, Discrete molecular weight components of the organic matrices of mollusc shells, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol.30, issue.1, pp.45-51, 1977.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-0981(77)90026-0

S. Weiner, H. Lowenstam, B. Taborek, and L. Hood, Fossil mollusk shell organic matrix components preserved for 80 million years, Paleobiology, vol.26, issue.02, pp.144-150, 1979.
DOI : 10.1016/0016-7037(69)90185-9

S. Weiner, H. Lowenstam, P. E. Hoering, T. C. King, and K. , Well-preserved fossil mollusk shells: characterization of mild diagenetic processes, In: Biogeochem. Amino Acids, pp.95-114, 1980.

S. Weiner and W. Traub, Macromolecules in Mollusc Shells and Their Functions in Biomineralization [and Discussion], Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.304, issue.1121, pp.425-434, 1984.
DOI : 10.1098/rstb.1984.0036

P. Westbroek and F. Marin, A marriage of bone and nacre, Nature, issue.6679, p.392, 1998.

J. Wozney, V. Rosen, A. Celeste, L. Mitsock, M. Whitters et al., Novel regulators of bone formation: molecular clones and activities, Science, vol.242, issue.4885, pp.242-1528, 1988.
DOI : 10.1126/science.3201241

K. Yancey, Adhesion Molecules. II: Interactions of Keratinocytes with Epidermal Basement Membrane, Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol.104, issue.6, pp.1008-1014, 1995.
DOI : 10.1111/1523-1747.ep12606244

S. Yuspa, A. Kilkenny, P. Steinert, and D. Roop, Expression of murine epidermal differentiation markers is tightly regulated by restricted extracellular calcium concentrations in vitro, The Journal of Cell Biology, vol.109, issue.3, pp.1207-1217, 1989.
DOI : 10.1083/jcb.109.3.1207