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Adhésion, croissance et polarisation de neurones sur substrats micro-et nano-structurés

Abstract : This thesis focuses on in vitro neuronal development, with the long-term goal of building controlled neuron networks that would allow the recording of their electric activity. A collection of intrinsic regulations are involved in neuronal adhesion, growth and polarization, in such a way that the cell can adapt to changes in its environment. Nevertheless, this environment can affect the behavior of the cell through mechanisms that rely on biophysical signals or even physical properties of this environment. The work presented in this thesis is based on the modification of two main aspects of the physical environment: geometry of adhesion and surface roughness. On the one hand, the geometry is controlled by patterns of adhesions, giving the ability to design bipolar motifs that highligt the importance of mechanical forces in neuronal growth, and also more complex motifs that allow the control of neuronal polarization, in particular by an inhibition of axonal differenciation on curved lines. On the other hand, a roughness below the microscale creates a distribution of adhesion points that results in an increase in neuronal growth rate and even influences axonal polarization. The final part of this thesis focuses on the development of an innovative method for placing cells at precise locations on a substrate, by the help of magnetic traps. This method is the final step required for growing model neuron networks on our nanotransistors.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, February 14, 2012 - 1:55:48 PM
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Ghislain Bugnicourt. Adhésion, croissance et polarisation de neurones sur substrats micro-et nano-structurés. Physique [physics]. Université de Grenoble, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011GRENY054⟩. ⟨tel-00665074⟩



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