Genome wide analysis for novel regulators of growth and lipid metabolism in drosophila melanogaster

Abstract : The evolutionary conserved insulin and nutrient signaling network regulates growth andmetabolism. Nutrients are directly utilized for growth or stored, mostly as triglycerides. InDrosophila, activation of insulin/nutrient signaling in the fat body (the fly equivalent of liverand adipose tissue), causes an increase in fat stores composed of several small-size lipiddroplets (LDs). Conversely, fasting produces an increase in LD size and a decrease in fatcontents. The TOR kinase and its substrate S6 kinase (S6K) play a central role in this response,and particularly in Drosophila, they have been shown to orchestrate cell-autonomous andhormone-controlled growth. However, despite extensive research studies on different modelorganisms (mouse, fly, worm) to decipher the molecular and physiological functions of S6K,nothing is known about how its degradation is regulated.Taking advantage of the inducible RNA interfering (RNAi) library from NIG (Japan), we haveperformed three genetic screens to identify novel regulators of steroidogenesis, lipidmetabolism and dS6K-dependent growth. First, RNAi lines were screened in the ring gland; anorgan that controls the progression of the developmental steps by producing the steroidhormone ecdysone. Out of 7,000 genes screened, 620 positive candidates were identified toproduce developmental arrest and/or overgrowth phenotypes. Then, we challenged 4,000 genesby RNAi screening able to recapitulate the larger sized LD phenotype as obtained uponstarvation, leading to the identification of 24 potential candidates. Finally, the RNAi lines werescreened for their ability to enhance a growth phenotype dependent of the Drosophila S6K(dS6K). Out of 7,000 genes screened, 45 genes were identified as potential negative regulatorsof dS6K. These genes were further used to design a novel protein-protein interaction networkcentered on dS6K through the available data from yeast-2-hybrid (Y2H) assay. The most potentinteractors were then analyzed by treatment of cultured S2 cells with the corresponding doublestrand RNA (dRNA). Western blotting thus, allowed us to discriminate between the geneproducts that regulate dS6K levels versus those that regulate its phosphorylation, as a hallmarkfor its kinase activity. Interestingly, archipelago (ago), which encodes a component of an SCFubiquitinligase known to regulate the degradation of dMyc, Cyclin E and Notch, was identifiedas a negative regulator of dS6K-dependent growth. Based on the Y2H available data showingthat Ago and dS6K interact each other and the presence of a putative Ago-interaction motif indS6K, we hypothesized that Ago causes an ubiquitin-mediated degradation of dS6K. Ourmolecular data showed that loss of ago caused an elevated level of dS6K, which confirms arole of Ago in controlling dS6K degradation. Altogether our findings emphasize the importanceof the saturating screening strategies in Drosophila to identify novel regulators of metabolicand signaling pathways.
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Agricultural sciences. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2011. English. <NNT : 2011PA112039>
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Muhammad Kashif Zahoor. Genome wide analysis for novel regulators of growth and lipid metabolism in drosophila melanogaster. Agricultural sciences. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2011. English. <NNT : 2011PA112039>. <tel-00664844>




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