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Utilisation de méthodes de l'astrogéodésie et de la géodésie spatiale pour des études de déformations de l’écorce terrestre : représentations de déformations et de leur degré de signification par des tenseurs régulièrement répartis

Abstract : Space geodesy tools are now strongly involved in geophysical studies. The horizontal deformation field for a region of interest is provided by two main methods : a velocity field and a strain tensor field. A strain tensors field solution has the advantage of being independent of the reference frame in which the velocities are expressed. Nevertheless, the current methods of calculation of a strain tensors field depend on the positioning of geodetic points. Furthermore, the current mapping method of tensors by their mains axis is not easy to read and to interpret, needing some training. This thesis is devoted to the problem of calculating a continuous field of regularly spaced strain tensors, and providing an intuitive mapping method of these tensors with a simultaneous representation of their significance level on the same map. The estimation of uncertainties related to the deformation field is made in two steps : firstly, a Monte Carlo method is applied for the calculation of uncertainties related to the measurements, its results allow to define the significance level of tensors by normalizing tensor's values with respect to their related uncertainties, then, the constraints coming from the distribution of the network of measurement points are calculated and combined with the first source of error. The new approach of mapping tensors was analyzed through an opinion survey by providing several possibilities of representation. The results of this opinion survey allowed us to validate this new mapping method by geophysicists for representing a deformation field, because it allows highlighting some aspects not well illustrated by the classical mapping method of tensors, and therefore choosing the graphical elements of the map which provide the best intuitive method of mapping a strain tensors field
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Leila Eissa. Utilisation de méthodes de l'astrogéodésie et de la géodésie spatiale pour des études de déformations de l’écorce terrestre : représentations de déformations et de leur degré de signification par des tenseurs régulièrement répartis. Autre [cs.OH]. Université Paris-Est, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011PEST1018⟩. ⟨tel-00664268⟩

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