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Theses

Minéralogie de Valles Marineris (Mars) par imagerie hyperspectrale : histoire magmatique et sédimentaire de la région

Abstract : Valles Marineris is a unique vertical section through the uppermost kilometers of the martian crust; its location, east of Tharsis bulge, and its water-related history suggest a great diversity of rock types in this area. High resolution morphologic (HiRISE) and mineralogic (CRISM) data from the MRO mission (NASA, 2006) available over the area were investigated. A typical succession of horizontal units of distinct morphologies and mineralogies was observed in the Eastern part of Valles Marineris, including basaltic lavas, phyllosilicate-rich boulders and a LCP (Low-Calcium Pyroxene)-rich basement. This basement, interpreted as being a uniquely preserved outcrop of pristine Noachian crust, is intruded by olivine-rich dikes, which are valuable witnesses of early magmatic and tectonic processes. A thin light-toned formation, enriched in Fe/Mg smectites at its base, and Al-phyllosilicates at its top, is draping the Noachian plateaus around the canyons. This widespread unit could have formed by alteration under a wet climate, and is akin to pedogenesis. Finally, kilometer-thick layered deposits that are filling most of the canyons were analyzed in the area of Capri Chasma, at the outlet of Valles Marineris. These Hesperian-aged deposits are enriched in monyhydrated and polyhydrated sulfates and appear to have been eroded by younger fluvial processes. Both spectral types are associated with different units of distinct morphologies, at different elevations. All these observations were combined to propose the following succession of events: I- Formation of the pristine crust by crystallization in a magma ocean, II- Piling of lava flows on the top of this crust and dike activity, III- Widespread surficial alteration, IV- Opening of Valles Marineris, V- deposition and erosion of the sulfate-rich layered deposits.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00663363
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Submitted on : Thursday, January 26, 2012 - 5:48:06 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00663363, version 1

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Jessica Flahaut. Minéralogie de Valles Marineris (Mars) par imagerie hyperspectrale : histoire magmatique et sédimentaire de la région. Sciences de la Terre. Ecole normale supérieure de lyon - ENS LYON, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011ENSL0642⟩. ⟨tel-00663363⟩

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