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Sources de bruit actives ultra stables à faible température de bruit pour la radiométrie micro-onde

Abstract : Radiometers calibration onboard a satellite for Earth observation missions are based on the measurement of reference targets. These reference sources should be able to generate distinct brightness temperatures or noise temperatures. For the cold reference sources, the most common method is to use an external source, like the cold sky. As an alternative, the use of an active cold load (ACL) based on transistor presents several advantages in terms of integration and reduction of complexity of the system. The first part of this report is dedicated to the principles of the radiometry. At first, we remind the essential of remote sensing technics used for Earth observation, then a state of art of different types of radiometer is presented. One of the most important elements for this instrument concerns its calibration. Because of that, a state of art concerning reference sources, and more particularly the active cold loads, is exposed. After all, we notice that, with their low noise level and their frequency range cover, field effect transistors (FET) are good candidates. Thus, we present, in a second chapter, a new type of ACL based on the use of a SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) in L-band. We discuss the technology and topology of the circuit and show the results obtained concerning the adaptation, the noise temperature and the sensitivity to the ambient temperature. In order to compare different technologies on the long-term stability, we also present the conception and the characterization of anACL based on PHEMT GaAs. The third part concerns the realization of a specific radiometer, in order to assess the long-term stability of the developed ACLs. The concept of the radiometer was articulated around two critical points: to limit gain variations of the system in order to increase its stability and to obtain a good sensitivity. In this aim, technological, technical choices and performances of the system are described. At last, the fourth part of this repor t is dedicated to the study of the long term stability for two developed ACLs. These ones are very stable on the short-term, and present interesting characteristics on the long-term. The approaches concerning the difference in the two circuits in terms of their behavior and performances are discussed.
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  • HAL Id : tel-00662860, version 1

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Emilie Leynia de la Jarrige. Sources de bruit actives ultra stables à faible température de bruit pour la radiométrie micro-onde. Micro et nanotechnologies/Microélectronique. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2011. Français. ⟨tel-00662860⟩

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