Impacts du changement climatique sur les bilans de carbone et de gaz à effet de serre de la prairie permanente en lien avec la diversité fonctionnelle

Abstract : In France, the grassland ecosystem represents an important part of the total of agricultural landscape and provides important economic and ecological services. This multifunctional ecosystem is a complex biological system where atmosphere, plants and soil interact together,via the biogeochemical cycles (particularly carbon and nitrogen cycles). In order to maintain goods and services from grasslands in changing environmental conditions, current research on the grassland ecosystem focus on the evolution of key grassland processes (i.e. production,gaseous exchanges, biodiversity) under multiple and simultaneous climate change.This thesis addresses the impacts of the three main climate change drivers (air temperature, precipitation and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations) on an extensively-managed upland grassland in situ. We investigated changes in ecosystem function and structure under the influence of a projected climate scenario for 2080 for central France. This scenario (ACCACIA A2) comprises : air warming of 3.5°C, 20 % reduction of the summer precipitation and an increase of 200 ppm in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2).Our results indicate that in the medium term (after three years of experimental treatments), warming had negative effects on the annual aboveground production. Elevated CO2 had no significant effects on aboveground production initially, but positive effects on biomass from the third year onwards. Species richness and the indices of species diversity did not show significant differences in response to climate change, but warming was associated with a decline in grass abundance after three years. Contrary to biomass production, plant traits showed a stronger response to elevated CO2 than to warming. After three years of study, canopy-level photosynthesis showed a negative effect of warming but an acclimation to elevated CO2 during the growing season. This pattern was also found for leaf-level photosynthetic rates measured on a dominant grass species (Festuca arundinacea). For Festuca, the direct negative effect of warming was associated with a decrease in leaf fructan metabolism. In contrast, the photosynthetic acclimation under elevated CO2 observed in Festuca seemed closely linked to the indirect effect of soil water content. Our study also examined effects of climate change on one of the main trace greenhouse gases in grasslands, nitrous oxide (N2O). During our study, N2O fluxes showed significant inter-and intra-annual variability. Nevertheless, mean annual N2O fluxes increased in response to warming. Warming had a positive effect on nitrification rates, denitrification rates and the population size of nitrifying bacteria (AOB). Furthermore, field N2O fluxes showed a stronger correlation with the microbial population size in the warmed compared with the control treatment. Overall, warming seems to be the main factor driving ecosystem responses to projected climate change conditions for this cool, upland grassland. In addition, our results suggest that grassland function (aboveground production, N2O emissions) are more vulnerable to complex climate change than grassland community structure for our study system.
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Sciences agricoles. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2011. Français. <NNT : 2011CLF22114>
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Submitted on : Tuesday, January 24, 2012 - 10:56:08 AM
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Amélie Cantarel. Impacts du changement climatique sur les bilans de carbone et de gaz à effet de serre de la prairie permanente en lien avec la diversité fonctionnelle. Sciences agricoles. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2011. Français. <NNT : 2011CLF22114>. <tel-00662443>




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