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Theses

Effets des pesticides de la vigne sur le cycle biologique de l'escargot dans divers contextes d'exposition

Abstract : An increasing number of chemicals are produced worldwide and a large part of them are plant protection products (PPPs). France is the first European consumer of PPPs and the third on the global level. The aim of our research was to investigate the fate and the effects of pesticides in the environment, particularly in the agrosystem, with the use of a bioindicator model, the snail Helix aspersa. We chose to characterize the exposure, the transfer and the effects on snails of 8 commercial herbicide and fungicide formulations (Roundup® and Bypass® = glyphosate; Basta® = glufosinate; Valiant® Flash = folpet + cymoxanil + fosetyl-Al; Corail® = tebuconazole; Cabrio® Top = pyraclostrobin + metiram-Zn; Thiovit® = sulphur; Bordeaux mixture = copper salts), commonly employed in vineyards. A field study in real conditions of pesticide application allowed the quantification of the spray deposits on soil in the parcel and in its surroundings showing the PPP drift deposits. At the same time, few effects were demonstrated on the survival and growth of juvenile snails exposed in microcosms to the different treatments, except for growth inhibition after Roundup® exposure, probably in relation to heavy spray deposits on the soil, accumulation and metabolisation of the active ingredient in the tissues. A soil extraction and analysis method involving two herbicides (glyphosate, glufosinate) was developed allowing the determination of exposure concentrations along the experiments and their persistence in a vineyard soil. The effects of Bypass® and Basta® were studied on the whole life cycle of snails in laboratory conditions. No significant effects were shown on survival and growth although an accumulation of glyphosate was revealed in snails (6 mg kg-1) exposed continuously to contaminated food (30 mg kg-1). However, we found that exposure of snails to glyphosate during their embryonic development tended to disrupt reproduction in the resulting adult snail (by decreasing fertility) due to a delayed effect of the herbicide. The potential targets affected at the level of neuro-endocrine control are discussed. All pesticides inhibited egg hatching success at lower concentrations than those applied in the field and the influence of soil characteristics on the toxicity of the pesticides was demonstrated. These effects were showcased by laboratory experiments that led to the development of embryotoxicity bioassays. This work has contributed to current understanding of the in- and on-soil fate and effects on snails (transfer and toxicity) of various pesticides applied to the vineyard. It allowed the development of tools (laboratory bioassays and field exposure device) that could help improving pesticide risk assessment proceedings in a terrestrial environment. The analysis methods designed for use in complex matrixes (soil and animal tissues) make an original contribution to environmental and human health risk assessment. Extensive analytic difficulties were encountered and it was not possible to finalize the analytical methods for all of the substances studied. Thus, the determination of pesticide residues in animal tissues still represents an essential challenge for current environmental concerns.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00662413
Contributor : Coline Druart <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, January 25, 2012 - 6:02:59 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, December 2, 2020 - 9:56:09 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Thursday, April 26, 2012 - 2:25:48 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-00662413, version 1

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Coline Druart. Effets des pesticides de la vigne sur le cycle biologique de l'escargot dans divers contextes d'exposition. Sciences de l'environnement. Université de Franche-Comté, 2011. Français. ⟨tel-00662413⟩

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