J. Nick, K. Schweitzer, and P. Luxenberg, Gasphasenabscheidung im system Ti-C-Si, J. Less Common Metals, vol.26, p.283, 1972.

Y. Zhou and Z. Sun, Electronic structure and bonding properties of layered machinable Ti 2 AlC and Ti 2 AlN ceramics, Phys. Rev. B, issue.19, pp.6112570-12573, 2000.

W. Jeitschko, H. Nowotny, and F. Benesovsky, Phasen mit aufgef???lltem Ti2Ni-Typ, Die H-Phasen : Ti 2 CdC, Ti 2 GaC, Ti 2 GaN, Ti 2 InN, Zr 2 InN and Nb 2 GaC, p.1004, 1964.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00908814

H. Nowotny, Struktuchemie Einiger Verbindungen der Ubenrgangsmetalle mit dem elementen C, Prog. Solid. State. Chem, vol.2, p.27, 1970.

M. W. Barsoum, The MN+1AXN phases: A new class of solids, Progress in Solid State Chemistry, vol.28, issue.1-4, pp.201-281, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0079-6786(00)00006-6

A. Cottrell, Chemical Bonding in Transition Metal Carbides, Institute of Mater

M. A. Pietzka and J. C. Schuster, Summary of constitutional data on the Aluminum-Carbon-Titanium system, Journal of Phase Equilibria, vol.8, issue.4, p.392, 1994.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02647559

W. Jeitschko, H. Nowotny, and F. Benesovsky, Die Kristallstructur von Ti 3 GeC 2 -ein neuer Komplexcarbid-Typ, Monatsh. fur Chem, vol.98, p.2401, 1967.
DOI : 10.1007/bf00899949

C. J. Rawn, M. W. Barsoum, T. El-raghy, A. Procopio, C. M. Hoffman et al., Structure of Ti 4 AlN 3?X a layered M n+1 AX n Nitride, Mater. Res. Bull

T. El-raghy, A. Zavaliangos, M. W. Barsoum, and S. Lalidinidi, Damage Mechanisms around Hardness Indentations in Ti3SiC2, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.9, issue.11, pp.513-529, 1997.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1151-2916.1997.tb02861.x

J. Pflüger, J. Fink, W. Weber, and K. Bohnen, from 1.5 to 40 eV determined by electron-energy-loss spectroscopy, Physical Review B, vol.30, issue.3, p.1155, 1984.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevB.30.1155

L. Chaput, G. Hug, P. Pécheur, and H. Scherrer, Anisotropy and thermopower in Ti 3 SiC 2, Phys. Rev. B, p.71, 2005.

G. Hug, M. Jaouen, and M. W. Barsoum, X-ray absorption spectroscopy , EELS, and full-potential augmented plane wave study of the electronic structure of Ti

D. Music, Z. Sun, A. A. Voevodin, and J. Schneider, AlC, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, vol.18, issue.17, pp.4389-4395, 2006.
DOI : 10.1088/0953-8984/18/17/024

A. Grechnev, S. Li, R. Ahuja, O. Eriksson, U. Jansson et al., Layered compound Nb 3 SiC 2 predicted from firstprinciples theory, Applied Physics Letters, issue.15, p.853071, 2004.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1791734

Z. Sun, R. Ahuja, S. Li, J. Schneiderm=ti, V. et al., Structure and bulk modulus of M2AlC (M=Ti, V, and Cr), Applied Physics Letters, vol.83, issue.5, p.899, 2003.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1599038

T. El-raghy, M. W. Barsoum, A. Zavaliangos, and S. Lalidinidi, Processing and Mechanical Properties of Ti3SiC2: II, Effect of Grain Size and Deformation Temperature, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.68, issue.7, pp.2855-2859, 1999.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1151-2916.1999.tb02167.x

M. Radovic, M. W. Barsoum, T. El-raghy, J. Seidensticker, and S. Wiederhorn, Tensile properties of Ti3SiC2 in the 25???1300??C temperature range, Acta Materialia, vol.48, issue.2, pp.453-459, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S1359-6454(99)00351-1

T. G. Nieh, C. M. Mcnally, and J. Wadsworth, Superplastic properties of a fine-grained yttria-stabilized tetragonal polycrystal of zirconia, Scripta Metallurgica, vol.22, issue.8, p.1297, 1988.
DOI : 10.1016/S0036-9748(88)80150-9

L. A. Xue and I. Chen, Superplastic Alumina at Temperatures below 1300oC Using Charge-Compensating Dopants, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.73, issue.5, p.233, 1996.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1151-2916.1994.tb04596.x

V. Petrenko and R. Whitworth, Physics of Ice, 1999.
DOI : 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198518945.001.0001

E. Orowan, A Type of Plastic Deformation New in Metals, Nature, vol.149, issue.3788, p.463, 1942.
DOI : 10.1038/149643a0

J. B. Hess and C. S. Barett, Structure and Nature of Kink Bands in Zinc, Trans. AIME, vol.185, p.599, 1949.

N. Tzenov and M. W. Barsoum, Synthesis and Characterization of Ti3AlC2, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.1, issue.11, pp.825-857, 2000.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1151-2916.2000.tb01281.x

W. Michel, . Barsoum, . Tamer, L. U. El-raghy, and . Ogbuji, Oxidation of Ti 3 SiC 2 in Air, J. Electrochem. Soc, vol.144, issue.7, 1997.

M. W. Barsoum, N. Tzenov, A. Procopio, T. Raghy, and M. Ali, Oxidation of Ti n+1 AlX n (n=1?3 and X=C, N). Experimental Results, J. Electrochem. Soc, issue.8, pp.148-551, 2001.

X. Wang and Y. Zhou, High temperature oxidation of Ti 2 AlC in air, Oxidation of Metals, vol.59, issue.3/4, pp.303-320, 2003.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1023092027697

M. Sundberg, G. Malmqvist, A. Magnusson, and T. El-raghy, Alumina forming high temperature silicides and carbides, Ceramics International, vol.30, issue.7, pp.1899-1904, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ceramint.2003.12.046

M. W. Barsoum, T. Raghy, C. J. Rawn, W. D. Porter, H. Wang et al., Thermal properties of Ti3SiC2, Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol.60, issue.4, pp.429-439, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-3697(98)00313-8

M. W. Barsoum, C. J. Rawn, T. El-raghy, A. Procopio, W. D. Porter et al., Thermal properties of Ti4AlN3, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.87, issue.12, pp.8407-8421, 2000.
DOI : 10.1063/1.373555

L. G. Radosevitch and W. S. Williams, Phonon Scattering by Conduction Electrons and by Lattice Vacancies in Carbides of the Transition Metals, Physical Review, vol.181, issue.3, p.770, 1969.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRev.181.1110

R. E. Taylor, Thermal Conductivity of ZrC at High Temperatures, J. Amer. Cer. Soc, vol.45, p.345, 1962.

N. Ashcroft and N. Mermin, Solid State Physics, 1976.

W. J. Wakelkamp, F. J. Van-loo, and R. Metselaar, Phase relations in the Ti???Si???C system, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol.8, issue.3, p.135, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0955-2219(91)90067-A

M. W. Barsoum, G. Yaroschuck, and S. Tyagi, Fabrication and characterization of M2SnC (M = Ti, Zr, Hf and Nb), Scripta Materialia, vol.37, issue.10, pp.1583-91, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S1359-6462(97)00288-1

T. El-raghy, S. Chakraborty, and M. W. Barsoum, Synthesis and Characterization of Hf 2 PbC, Zr 2 PbC and M 2 SnC

A. T. Procopio, T. El-raghy, and M. W. Barsoum, Synthesis of Ti 4 AlN 3 and Phase Equilibria in the Ti-Al-N System, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, p.31, 2000.

H. Yoo, M. W. Barsoum, and T. El-raghy, Ti 3 SiC 2 Has Negligible Thermopower, Nature, vol.407, issue.6804, pp.581-82, 2000.
DOI : 10.1038/35036686

M. W. Barsoum, D. Brodkin, and T. El-raghy, Layered machinable ceramics for high temperature applications, Scripta Materialia, vol.36, issue.5, p.535, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S1359-6462(96)00418-6

T. Hirano and M. Kaise, Electrical resistivities of single???crystalline transition???metal disilicides, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.68, issue.2, p.627, 1990.
DOI : 10.1063/1.346790

T. Berlincourt, R. Hall-effect, M. Of-th, U. Zr, and N. Ti, Hall Effect, Resistivity, and Magnetoresistivity of Th, U, Zr, Ti, and Nb, Physical Review, vol.114, issue.4, p.969, 1959.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRev.114.969

W. S. Williams, Scattering of Electrons by Vacancies in Nonstoichiometric Crystals of Titanium Carbide, Physical Review, vol.135, issue.2A, p.505, 1964.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRev.135.A505

F. Modine, M. D. Foegelle, C. B. Finch, and C. Y. Allison, Electrical properties of transition-metal carbides of group IV, Physical Review B, vol.40, issue.14, p.9558, 1989.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevB.40.9558

H. Atkinson and S. Davies, Fundamental aspects of hot isostatic pressing: An overview, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol.107, issue.1???2, p.31, 2000.
DOI : 10.1007/s11661-000-0078-2

A. Damien, Etude quantitative par microscopié electronique des nanoparticules de CoPt : croissance et effets de taille sur les phénom` enes ordre-désordre, 2007.

P. Drude, Bestimmung der optischen Constanten der Metalle, Annalen der Physik und Chemie, vol.35, issue.4, p.481, 1890.
DOI : 10.1002/andp.18902750402

P. Drude, Uber die gesetze der reflexion und brechung des lichtes an der grenze absorbirender krystaller, Ann. Phys, vol.32, p.584, 1887.

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, High Precision Scanning Ellipsometer, Applied Optics, vol.14, issue.1, p.220, 1975.
DOI : 10.1364/AO.14.000220

B. Drévillon, J. Perrin, R. Marbot, A. Violet, and J. Darby, A fast polarization modulated ellipsometer, Rev. Scientific Instr, vol.3, p.53, 1982.

P. Drude, Ueber Oberflächenschichten. II Teil, Ann. Phys. Chem. N. F, vol.36, pp.865-897, 1889.

D. E. Aspnes, Approximate solution of ellipsometric equations for optically biaxial crystals, Journal of the Optical Society of America, vol.70, issue.10, p.1275, 1980.
DOI : 10.1364/JOSA.70.001275

R. M. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and polarized light, 1977.

G. Jr, J. S. Jellison, and . Baba, Pseudodielectric functions of uniaxial materials in certain symmetry directions, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, vol.23, issue.2, p.468, 2006.

M. Inokuti, Inelastic Collisions of Fast Charged Particles with Atoms and Molecules???The Bethe Theory Revisited, Reviews of Modern Physics, vol.43, issue.3, pp.297-346, 1971.
DOI : 10.1103/RevModPhys.43.297

. Egerton, Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy in the Electron Microscope, 1996.

P. Schattschneider, Retrieval of single-loss profiles from energy-loss spectra A new approach, Philosophical Magazine Part B, vol.88, issue.5, pp.555-560, 1983.
DOI : 10.1002/pssb.2220640212

B. Rafferty, S. Pennycook, and L. Brown, Zero loss peak deconvolution for bandgap EEL spectra, Journal of Electron Microscopy, vol.49, issue.4, p.517, 2000.
DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.jmicro.a023838

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

R. H. French, H. Müllejeans, and D. J. Jones, Optical properties of aluminium oxide : determined from vacuum ultraviolet and electron energy-loss spectroscopy, J.Am. Ceram.Soc, issue.10, pp.812549-57, 1998.

F. Wooten, Optical properties of solids, 1972.

H. Ehrenreich, H. R. Philipp, and B. Segall, Optical Properties of Aluminum, Physical Review, vol.132, issue.5, pp.1918-1928, 1963.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRev.132.1918

H. Bross, Pseudopotential theory of the dielectric function of Al-the volume plasmon dispersion, Journal of Physics F: Metal Physics, vol.8, issue.12, pp.2631-2649, 1978.
DOI : 10.1088/0305-4608/8/12/022

O. Wilhelmsson and J. Palmquist, Deposition and characterization of ternary thin films within the Ti???Al???C system by DC magnetron sputtering, Journal of Crystal Growth, vol.291, issue.1, pp.290-300, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2006.03.008

T. Joelsson, A. Hörling, J. Birch, and L. Hultman, Single-crystal Ti2AlN thin films, Applied Physics Letters, vol.86, issue.11, p.111913, 2005.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1882752

H. Högberg, L. Hultman, J. Emmerlich, T. Joelsson, P. Elkund et al., Growth and characterisation of max-phase thin films, Surface & coatings technology, pp.6-10, 2003.

M. Beckers, N. Schell, R. M. Martins, A. Mücklich, and W. Möller, x-ray diffraction, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.98, issue.4, p.98, 2005.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1999829

J. Emmerlich, Electrical resistivity of TiAC (A=Si, Ge, Sn) thin films, J. Mater. Res, vol.22, 2007.

O. Wilhelmsson, Structural, electrical and mechanical characterization of magnetron-sputtered V???Ge???C thin films, Acta Materialia, vol.56, issue.11, pp.2563-2569, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.actamat.2008.01.036

R. Martin, Electronic Structure : Basics Theory and Practical Methods, 2004.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511805769

P. Hohenberg and W. Kohn, Inhomogeneous Electron Gas, Physical Review, vol.136, issue.3B, pp.864-871, 1964.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRev.136.B864

D. J. Singh, Planewaves, Pseudopotentials and the LAPW method, 1994.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4757-2312-0

D. Koeling and G. O. Arbman, Use of energy derivative of the radial solution in an augmented plane wave method: application to copper, Journal of Physics F: Metal Physics, vol.5, issue.11, p.2041, 1975.
DOI : 10.1088/0305-4608/5/11/016

O. K. Andersen, Linear methods in band theory, Physical Review B, vol.12, issue.8, p.3060, 1975.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevB.12.3060

P. Blaha, K. Schwartz, G. K. Madsen, D. Kvasnicka, and J. Luitz, An augmented plane wave + local orbitals program for calculating crystal proerties, Karlheinz Schwarz, 2002.

C. Ambrosch-draxl and J. O. Sofo, Linear optical properties of solids within the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method, Cond. Mat, 2004.

B. J. Austin, V. Heine, and L. J. Sham, General Theory of Pseudopotentials, Physical Review, vol.127, issue.1, pp.276-282, 1962.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRev.127.276

N. Troullier and J. L. Martins, A straightforward method for generating soft transferable pseudopotentials, Solid State Communications, vol.74, issue.7, p.613, 1990.
DOI : 10.1016/0038-1098(90)90686-6

A. Zangwill and P. Soven, Density-functional approach to local-field effects in finite systems: Photoabsorption in the rare gases, Physical Review A, vol.21, issue.5, p.1561, 1980.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevA.21.1561

E. Runge and E. K. Gross, Density-Functional Theory for Time-Dependent Systems, Physical Review Letters, vol.52, issue.12, p.997, 1984.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.52.997

M. A. Marques and E. K. Gross, TIME-DEPENDENT DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY, Annual Review of Physical Chemistry, vol.55, issue.1, p.427, 2004.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.physchem.55.091602.094449

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00438357

M. Petersilka, U. J. Gossmann, and E. K. Gross, Excitation Energies from Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory, Physical Review Letters, vol.76, issue.8, p.1212, 1996.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.76.1212

R. Daling, W. Van-haeringen, and B. Farid, Silicon plasmon resonances in the local-density approximation, Physical Review B, vol.45, issue.16, p.8970, 1992.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevB.45.8970

K. Sturm, Local-Field Effects in the Plasmon Line Shape of Semiconductors of the Diamond and Zinc-Blende Structures, Physical Review Letters, vol.40, issue.24, p.1599, 1978.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.40.1599

S. G. Louie, J. Chelikowsky, and M. L. Cohen, Local-Field Effects in the Optical Spectrum of Silicon, Physical Review Letters, vol.34, issue.3, p.155, 1975.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.34.155

S. L. Adler, Quantum Theory of the Dielectric Constant in Real Solids, Physical Review, vol.126, issue.2, p.413, 1962.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRev.126.413

G. Onida, L. Reining, and A. Rubio, Electronic excitations: density-functional versus many-body Green???s-function approaches, Reviews of Modern Physics, vol.74, issue.2, pp.601-659, 2002.
DOI : 10.1103/RevModPhys.74.601

K. Fuchs, The conductivity of thin metallic films according to the electron theory of metals, Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, vol.34, issue.01, p.100, 1938.
DOI : 10.1017/S0305004100019952