Polluants atmosphériques organiques particulaires en Rhône-Alpes : caractérisation chimique et sources d'émissions

Abstract : Tougher European Union regulations of ambient particulate matter (PM) will require apportionment of the different sources. Primary sources can be anthropological sources (biomass burning, fossil-fuel combustion, cooking, ….) and natural sources (vegetative detritus, crustal dust). PM can also be formed by gas-to-particle conversion processes (secondary sources). The identification and sources apportionment can be conducted by studying the organic fraction of aerosols using chemical analysis on off-line filters in ambient and in emissions of sources. In this work, methodologies of emission sources characterization by analyzing the organic fraction of PM and the sources apportionment on fine aerosol mass were developed and/or adapted from previous methodologies on many ambient sites. A special focus was placed on different sites of the Rhône-Alpes Region where many exceedances of authorized PM values are observed. Methodologies were developed primarily for an urban background site (Les Frênes site in Grenoble) and are based both on qualitative approaches (footprints study of large chemical family, use of tracer ratios) and quantitative approaches (PCA, isotopic carbon measurements, Molecular-Marker Chemical Mass Balance). They allow a good estimation of OM (organic matter) and PM sources in winter. Applications of those methodologies for other sites with different topologies (rural, valley bottoms, near sources, marine, in France and in Switzerland, for different seasons) showed the complementarity of the different methodologies proposed. It also pointed out the necessity of adapting them to the specificities of each sites in order to have a good estimation of PM. In addition, further work should still be done to improve sources apportionment of OM. Moreover, in the context of applying those methodologies to Swiss alpine valley sites, it got possible to compare the quantitative CMB approach based on the study of organic compounds with another approach based on the study of the inorganic fraction of aerosols. Methodologies developed and optimized during this work will be used like reference to scientific or regulation applications in other national or international studies.
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Christine Piot. Polluants atmosphériques organiques particulaires en Rhône-Alpes : caractérisation chimique et sources d'émissions. Autre. Université de Grenoble, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011GRENA014⟩. ⟨tel-00661284⟩

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