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Déformation à la transition entre subduction et collision à l'est de Taïwan: approche sismologique

Abstract : The purpose of this work is to specify the deformation offshore East of Taiwan by characterizing major active faults in particular at the level of the Ryukyu forearc. The major problem associated with the study of this region is that earthquakes are located outside the permanent networks. Consequently, this led to some unprecise earthquake locations limiting tectonic and statistical analyses, and therefore the correct estimation of the seismic hazard. This work is included in the project ANR ACTS (Active Tectonics and Seismic Hazard in Taiwan). To achieve this goal, we worked on three different timescales for which a different localization method has been proposed to obtain a clear image of seismic deformation and highlight major faults offhore East of Taiwan. First, at the scale of the century (from the analysis of a seismicity catalogue with homogeneous magnitude), the instrumental historical earthquakes (1897-2007) show that the Ryukyu margin was affected by 6 earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7 with 4 of them for which the responsible fault is unknown. We propose a method of relative location to relocate the historic events from the time difference of P and S arrival times (Ts-Tp) at each station. The location is obtained by searching for "analogue" earthquakes in the recent instrumental catalogue (1991-2008) for which Ts-Tp at each station is close. This method has been applied to the largest (in terms of magnitude) earthquake ever recorded in Taiwan, the earthquake of June 5, 1920 (M7.7 +/- 0.2). A rupture along the interplate of the Ryukyu subduction with a possible nucleation at the downdip limit of a splay-fault is certainly responsible of this earthquake. Then, at the scale of the decade, the improvement of the method of absolute location based on MAXimum of Intersection of EDT (MAXI, EDT: Equal Differential Time) allows to better extract the erroneous arrival times and prevents the "trade-off" between depth and origin time, and between depth and epicentral position when the azimuthal coverage is low (gap Azimuthal > 180\degre). Synthetic tests show the effectiveness of MAXI (using P-wave only) to determine the parameters x, y and z even when the azimuthal gap is important. In the latter case, the quality of the results is dependent on the velocity model to represent the 3D structure of the Earth. We propose an approach involving the use of a 3D a priori P-wave velocity model to locate earthquakes which are lateral and remote to the seismic network. An application to the case of Taiwan and Ecuador validates this approach. Finally, at the level of a few months, the marine geophysical campaign RATS (Ryukyu Arc: Tectonics and Seismology) was conducted in two stages. A passive seismology experiment from July to October, 2008 (RATS1) has been conducted over the forearc of the Ryukyus and then active seismic experiment (refraction and reflection) was conducted in May 2009 in a NNE - SSW line through the Ryukyu margin. These two combined experiments allow improving our knowledge about the crustal structure of the margin. At the level of the forearc, the basement of the forearc is characterized by vertical backstop and a very deformed basis certainly associated with a significant out of sequence deformation. In depth, the downgoing plate is certainly affected by a tear that controls the seismicity in the region of transition between the subduction and collision.
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Contributor : Thomas Theunissen <>
Submitted on : Tuesday, January 17, 2012 - 2:58:06 PM
Last modification on : Friday, April 5, 2019 - 8:14:46 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00660737, version 1



Thomas Theunissen. Déformation à la transition entre subduction et collision à l'est de Taïwan: approche sismologique. Sciences de la Terre. Université Montpellier II - Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc, 2011. Français. ⟨tel-00660737⟩



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