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Déplacements et sélection d'habitat chez les animaux non contraints par la reproduction : une étude de l'écologie en mer des Manchots durant les phases d'immaturité et inter-nuptiale

Abstract : Animal movements in their environment reveal the resources they depend on in this environment. Levels of human impact in the marine environment (mainly through fisheries) have broken ecological balance, this being obvious at higher trophic levels. Our work therefore aimed at depicting movements of locally to globally declining marine predators. We especially focused on movements outside the breeding period, when predators generally face heavy constraints for survival while at-sea for a prolonged period, in 5 penguin species being keystones as consumers in a gradient of environments in the southern Indian Ocean. Their movements were investigated using light-based geolocation or satellite telemetry, and their trophic ecology by carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses. Our work allowed to delineate and to characterize the oceanic sectors exploited during the whole inter-breeding period by 3 congeneric species of penguins (genus Eudyptes). Then, inter-site, inter-species and inter-annual comparisons highlighted population-based striking mechanisms of ecological segregation in space, time and on food. Finally, our studies on post-natal dispersion in 2 other penguin species revealed the prospection of a contrasted habitat compared to the adults situation, and the probable action of innate skills. Our studies appear crucial in the conservation of the studied species in the study area, and rise questions about the dynamics of the population-based movement patterns observed, considering competition pressures and mobility of the targeted habitats.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00660333
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Submitted on : Monday, January 16, 2012 - 2:17:56 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, December 10, 2020 - 10:59:52 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Tuesday, April 17, 2012 - 2:30:51 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-00660333, version 1

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Jean-Baptiste Thiebot. Déplacements et sélection d'habitat chez les animaux non contraints par la reproduction : une étude de l'écologie en mer des Manchots durant les phases d'immaturité et inter-nuptiale. Sciences de l'environnement. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2011. Français. ⟨tel-00660333⟩

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