Sur le contexte spatial en gestion des fenêtres et interaction homme-machine.

Abstract : It is already well known that for an interaction to be useful, it must be thought “in context”. Unfortunately, this Context remains quite a blurry notion encompassing a lot of different concepts, making it hard to use when designing new interaction techniques. This thesis focus on the spatial part of this context in the field of window management and desktop usage.First, we designed and implemented a set of interaction techniques we called PowerTools. These interactions have the particularity of keeping the position and size of on-screen objects and to keep interaction around the user’s focus of attention. Two of these techniques, DeskPop and StackLeafing more precisely focus on the navigation between windows (and desktop) while using a drag-and-drop interaction. DeskPop allow to uncover and interact with the desktop’s content without requiring to hide or move opened windows. StackLeafing’s purpose is to use the non overlapping of windows to group them in layers, thus allowing to search through them by group instead of individually. On the other hand, TimeShift offer a triggering technique for copy-and-paste histories whose particularity is to keep the interaction around the user’s point of interest.The desing of these PowerTools brought us to conduct three more theorical studies on the spatial context which in turn led to controlled user experiments.The first of these studies looked at the the acquisition of popping and animated targets where we made the delay of apprarition or animation vary. It turns out that the cases where the target is animated or pops are really close to the traditionnal static case in term of pointing performance for small delays (under 200 ms). However, the non static cases lead to more pointing errors and once the delay goes above the 200 ms limit, we observe a drop in performance compared to the static case. These results show that techniques akind to StackLeafing and DeskPop that keep the potential target visible and static have an advantage over classic techniques.The second study looked at the depth dimension in window management. Its purpose was to see if applying some graphical effect on windows could help users better perceive the depth windows layers like the ones used in the StackLeafing technique. This study compared three depth visual cues: shadows, blur and luminance. These cues were used in scenes composed of windows group into layers (set of windows that does not everlap). The blur and luminance cues were applied more strongly on “distant” windows than on closer ones. Participants had then to guess the number of layers in the scene. This sudy shows that the luminance cue is a clear winner.Finally, the desing of TimeShift also brought our attention on the difficulty to integrate a new interaction tech- nique into an existing system. In the case of copy-and-paste histories conception, we used “timed” interactions. In order to generalise this temporal interactions we propose to use rhythmic patterns as a mean to communicate with interactive systems. We defined a vocabulary suited for human-computer interaction. We then evaluated through user studies the capacity for non experts to reproduce and memorise the association of such patterns and commands. These studies indeed show that the type of rhythmic patterns we defined are usable in the context of human-computer-interaction.the starting point of this thesis was to keep the on-screen elements static and to keep the interaction around the user’s locus of attention in order to preserve the user’s memory and spatial context. First, we integrated a set of techniques insite a real environment. Then, in order to better understand conception choices, we designed and ran controlled experiments.
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Guillaume Faure. Sur le contexte spatial en gestion des fenêtres et interaction homme-machine.. Autre [cs.OH]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011PA112326⟩. ⟨tel-00660269⟩

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