Abstract : The work described in this PhD thesis deals with the chemistry of proazaphosphatrane-type superbases, which are highly reactive bicyclic phosphorous systems largely applied in catalysis. The main goal of these investigations was to devise new applications for their use in catalysis. In this way, several strategies were followed, with an emphasis on their molecular confinement and use in interfacial catalytic systems. In the first part, the manuscript describes the synthesis and characterisation of a supramolecular proazaphosphatrane obtained via the enclosing of a proazaphosphatrane moiety in a hemicryptophane-type macrobicyclic cavity. In parallel, the semi-preparative scale resolution of two macrobicyclic intermediates allowed us to assign their absolute configurations. In the second part, the synthesis and characterisation of a new class of superbases supported on mesoporous silica was achieved. The synthesis was followed by their application in base-catalysed organic reactions. The last part reports the use of their conjugate acids, or azaphosphatranes, in phase transfer catalysis. Their usefulness as achiral phase transfer agents in four relevant reactions was thus determined. The thesis ends with an introduction into asymmetric phase transfer catalysis, using enantiopure azaphosphatranes.