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L'écologie en mer des Éléphants de Mer Austraux au travers des isotopes stables du carbone et de l'azote

Abstract : Foraging Ecology Foraging is the ability of organisms to acquire and secure resources whose later ex- penditure will determine their biological fitness. Patterns of expenditure translate into life-history patterns through the process of allocation (Boggs, 1992; Stearns, 1989). Allocation is a within-individual process while foraging is a between- individual one (Figure 1.1). If resources are limited, individual organisms will face allocation trade-offs: for example allocation of time and energy to reproduction may depress growth and survival (Pianka, 1976; Stearns, 1989). Foraging is thus critical as it will determine whether individual organisms will face such allocation trade-offs, either because key resources are limited in the environment or because individuals vary in their ability to extract resources (van Noordwijk and de Jong, 1986). The former limits stem from competition while the latter stem from differences in indi- vidual quality hereafter understood as a static trait that positively correlates with fitness (Cam et al., 2002; Bergeron et al., 2011). Because of the intrincate links between foraging and life-history patterns, a detailed knowledge of how organisms cope with extracting resources from their environment is needed to further under- stand the population consequences of these life-history patterns (Cole, 1954). Such an understanding is a difficult endeavour: it is a multilevel problem (Robinson, 2009; Cooch et al., 2002). Data both at the between-individual and within-individual lev- els are needed for a complete elucidation as emphasized on Figure 1.1 which depicts feedback loops between these two levels.
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Submitted on : Monday, January 16, 2012 - 11:34:22 AM
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Matthieu Authier. L'écologie en mer des Éléphants de Mer Austraux au travers des isotopes stables du carbone et de l'azote. Sciences de l'environnement. Université de Poitiers, 2011. Français. ⟨tel-00660199⟩



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