Erosion des sols du Cap Vert : processus et quantification à l'échelle de trois Bassins Versants de l'île de Santiago

Abstract : The archipelago of Cape Verde comprises 10 volcanic islands and belongs to the Sahelian zone stretching from the Atlantic to the Red Sea. Since several decades, Cape Verde is affected by desertification caused largely by climatic recession and soil erosion. These factors, coupled with high population pressure on resources, rugged topography and torrential tropical rains, cause serious losses of lands. However, since its independence in 1975, the Government conducted an extensive program of afforestation, soil and water conservation. Nevertheless very little research has been conducted to evaluate the actions of protection and conservation of soil and water. Therefore, there is no data on the problem of land degradation or budget. As part of this work, we studied the various factors that control soil erosion by water. Specifically, we sought to differentiate the effects of human activities including agriculture, those climatic factors such as rainfall and runoff generation. We also established the first mass budget of suspended and dissolved load in the context of the archipelago of Cape Verde. The study was conducted across three watersheds of the Santiago Island, Cape Verde. These three watersheds (Longueira, Grande and Godim) are located in the central part of the island and are representative of various types of land use and of the different climates of the island. There is a climatic gradient between the three watersheds. Indeed, Longueira which covers an area of 4.18 km2, an average slope of 47 % is localized in a humid zone and covered to 69 % by forest and the agricultural area is 17 %. Grande with an area of 1.87 km2, is localized in sub humid zone for an average slope of 50 %, it is mainly agricultural. Godim, with an area of 2.0 km2, is localized in semi arid, it is particularly agriculture and its average slope is 32 %. For these three watersheds, flood flows at the outlet were measured and sampled from 2004 to 2009. Watershed Longueira has been further monitoring, particularly in terms of sampling and monitoring of flood flows out. On each sample we determined the concentration of suspended sediment and we analyzed dissolved major elements. The results show that mechanical erosion in the three watersheds is characterized by high spatial and temporal variability. Over the period 2005-2009, the average annual budget for Longueira, Grande and Godim watersheds is: 4266, 157 and 10.1 respectively. The wet season 2006 was the most erosive for all three watersheds, particularly in Longueira with 2 exceptional floods that have generated an average concentration of suspended sediment exceeding 100 g/l. In contrast, the seasons 2005 and 2008 have been generally low erosive because mean concentrations did not exceed 20 g/l. Moreover, there was no runoff for the seasons 2005 and 2007 for the watershed of Godim. In Longueira watershed, the study of hysteresis phenomena can characterize each flood and show that the temporal evolution of suspended sediment yield during the season is strongly influenced by agricultural activities. Indeed, the first flood caused the massive export of sediment available and located in the bed of the watercourse. Accordingly, the second exported less sediment. One month after the first rains, weeding activities decreased the density of vegetation cover and deconstruct the superficial soil, which again caused a very strong export of sediments during the third run off. The results of the chemical erosion in the watershed of Longueira indicate that the budget of chemical erosion rate is 45 with a strong temporal variability. Indeed, the wettest seasons of 2006 and 2007 are the most export of dissolved load, whereas 2005 had a low export. The use of model mixtures EMMA (End-Members Mixing Analysis) shows that the interflow and deep, feeding the streams in dissolved elements are the main factors of chemical erosion. It is shown that the flows out are believed to cause more 90% of chemical erosion fluxes. The surface flow, which contributes about 70% of the flow of rivers in flood, is a factor most important factor of mechanical soil erosion.
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Sciences de la Terre. Université de Bourgogne, 2010. Français. <NNT : 2010DIJOS071>
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Submitted on : Thursday, January 12, 2012 - 5:47:36 PM
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Jacques de Pina Tavares. Erosion des sols du Cap Vert : processus et quantification à l'échelle de trois Bassins Versants de l'île de Santiago. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Bourgogne, 2010. Français. <NNT : 2010DIJOS071>. <tel-00659445>




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