Abstract : The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed e+e- collider with a center-of-mass energy of 500 GeV or more, aimed at precision measurements, e.g. of a light Higgs boson that could be discovered soon at the Large Hadron Collider. Its detectors foresee the use of fine grained calorimeters to achieve the desired precisions.This thesis presents the study of the response to hadrons of a highly granular silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter (SiW ECAL), and the study of top quark pair production at the ILC.The SiW ECAL prototype developed by the CALICE collaboration was tested with beams of charged particles at FNAL in May and July 2008. After selecting single negatively charged pions entering the ECAL, its fine granularity is used to introduce a classification among four types of events, used to describe hadronic interactions.Motivated by extra-dimensional models which may explain the AFBb LEP anomaly by modifying the couplings of third generation quarks to the Z boson, the semileptonic decay of the top quark is studied with a full simulation of the proposed ILD detector for the ILC at center-of-mass energy of 500 GeV and integrated luminosity of 500 fb-1. Detector performances permit to reach efficiencies larger than 70% in finding those events with purity larger than 95%. This translates into a relative accuracy of about 1% on both the left-right asymmetry of top production ALR and the top forward-backward asymmetry AFBt with electrons polarized at 80% and no polarization of the positrons. The relative uncertainties in the left and right couplings of the top quark to the Z boson could be as good as 0.9% and 1.5%.