Abstract : In this thesis, we study local Tb theorems for singular integral operators in the setting of spaces of homogeneous type. We give a direct proof of the local Tb theorem with L^2 integrability on the pseudo- accretive system. Our argument relies on the Beylkin-Coifman-Rokhlin algorithm applied in adapted Haar wavelet basis and some stopping time results. Motivated by questions of S. Hofmann, we extend it to the case when the integrability conditions are lower than 2, with an additional weak boundedness type hypothesis, which incorporates some Hardy type inequalities. We study the possibility of relaxing the support conditions on the pseudo-accretive system to a slight enlargement of the dyadic cubes. We also give a result in the case when, for practical reasons, hypotheses on the pseudo-accretive system are made on balls rather than dyadic cubes. Finally we study the particular case of perfect dyadic operators for which the proof gets much simpler.Our argument gives us the opportunity to study Hardy type inequalities. The latter are well known in the Euclidean setting, but seem to have been overlooked in spaces of homogeneous type. We prove that they hold without restriction in the dyadic setting. In the more general case of a ball B and its corona 2B\B, they can be obtained from some geometric conditions relative to the distribution of points in the homogeneous space. For example, we prove that some relative layer decay property suffices. We also prove that this property is implied by the monotone geodesic property of Tessera. Finally, we give some explicit examples and counterexamples in the complex plane to illustrate the relationship between the geometry of the homogeneous space and the validity of the Hardy type inequalities.